Session

class sherpa.astro.ui.utils.Session[source] [edit on github]

Bases: Session

Methods Summary

add_model(modelclass[, args, kwargs])

Create a user-defined model class.

add_user_pars(modelname, parnames[, ...])

Add parameter information to a user model.

calc_chisqr([id])

Calculate the per-bin chi-squared statistic.

calc_data_sum([lo, hi, id, bkg_id])

Sum up the data values over a pass band.

calc_data_sum2d([reg, id])

Sum up the data values of a 2D data set.

calc_energy_flux([lo, hi, id, bkg_id, model])

Integrate the unconvolved source model over a pass band.

calc_kcorr(z, obslo, obshi[, restlo, ...])

Calculate the K correction for a model.

calc_model_sum([lo, hi, id, bkg_id])

Sum up the fitted model over a pass band.

calc_model_sum2d([reg, id])

Sum up the convolved model for a 2D data set.

calc_photon_flux([lo, hi, id, bkg_id, model])

Integrate the unconvolved source model over a pass band.

calc_source_sum([lo, hi, id, bkg_id])

Sum up the source model over a pass band.

calc_source_sum2d([reg, id])

Sum up the unconvolved model for a 2D data set.

calc_stat([id])

Calculate the fit statistic for a data set.

calc_stat_info()

Display the statistic values for the current models.

clean()

Clear out the current Sherpa session.

conf(*args)

Estimate parameter confidence intervals using the confidence method.

confidence(*args)

Estimate parameter confidence intervals using the confidence method.

contour(*args, **kwargs)

Create a contour plot for an image data set.

contour_data([id, replot, overcontour])

Contour the values of an image data set.

contour_fit([id, replot, overcontour])

Contour the fit to a data set.

contour_fit_resid([id, replot, overcontour])

Contour the fit and the residuals to a data set.

contour_kernel([id, replot, overcontour])

Contour the kernel applied to the model of an image data set.

contour_model([id, replot, overcontour])

Create a contour plot of the model.

contour_psf([id, replot, overcontour])

Contour the PSF applied to the model of an image data set.

contour_ratio([id, replot, overcontour])

Contour the ratio of data to model.

contour_resid([id, replot, overcontour])

Contour the residuals of the fit.

contour_source([id, replot, overcontour])

Create a contour plot of the unconvolved spatial model.

copy_data(fromid, toid)

Copy a data set, creating a new identifier.

covar(*args)

Estimate parameter confidence intervals using the covariance method.

covariance(*args)

Estimate parameter confidence intervals using the covariance method.

create_arf(elo, ehi[, specresp, exposure, ...])

Create an ARF.

create_model_component([typename, name])

Create a model component.

create_rmf(rmflo, rmfhi[, startchan, e_min, ...])

Create an RMF.

dataspace1d(start, stop[, step, numbins, ...])

Create the independent axis for a 1D data set.

dataspace2d(dims[, id, dstype])

Create the independent axis for a 2D data set.

delete_bkg_model([id, bkg_id])

Delete the background model expression for a data set.

delete_data([id])

Delete a data set by identifier.

delete_model([id])

Delete the model expression for a data set.

delete_model_component(name)

Delete a model component.

delete_pileup_model([id])

Delete the pile up model for a data set.

delete_psf([id])

Delete the PSF model for a data set.

eqwidth(src, combo[, id, lo, hi, bkg_id, ...])

Calculate the equivalent width of an emission or absorption line.

fake([id, method])

Simulate a data set.

fake_pha(id, arf, rmf, exposure[, backscal, ...])

Simulate a PHA data set from a model.

fit([id])

Fit a model to one or more data sets.

fit_bkg([id])

Fit a model to one or more background PHA data sets.

freeze(*args)

Fix model parameters so they are not changed by a fit.

get_analysis([id])

Return the units used when fitting spectral data.

get_areascal([id, bkg_id])

Return the fractional area factor of a PHA data set.

get_arf([id, resp_id, bkg_id])

Return the ARF associated with a PHA data set.

get_arf_plot([id, resp_id, recalc])

Return the data used by plot_arf.

get_axes([id, bkg_id])

Return information about the independent axes of a data set.

get_backscal([id, bkg_id])

Return the BACKSCAL scaling of a PHA data set.

get_bkg([id, bkg_id])

Return the background for a PHA data set.

get_bkg_arf([id])

Return the background ARF associated with a PHA data set.

get_bkg_chisqr_plot([id, bkg_id, recalc])

Return the data used by plot_bkg_chisqr.

get_bkg_delchi_plot([id, bkg_id, recalc])

Return the data used by plot_bkg_delchi.

get_bkg_fit_plot([id, bkg_id, recalc])

Return the data used by plot_bkg_fit.

get_bkg_model([id, bkg_id])

Return the model expression for the background of a PHA data set.

get_bkg_model_plot([id, bkg_id, recalc])

Return the data used by plot_bkg_model.

get_bkg_plot([id, bkg_id, recalc])

Return the data used by plot_bkg.

get_bkg_ratio_plot([id, bkg_id, recalc])

Return the data used by plot_bkg_ratio.

get_bkg_resid_plot([id, bkg_id, recalc])

Return the data used by plot_bkg_resid.

get_bkg_rmf([id])

Return the background RMF associated with a PHA data set.

get_bkg_scale([id, bkg_id, units, group, filter])

Return the background scaling factor for a background data set.

get_bkg_source([id, bkg_id])

Return the model expression for the background of a PHA data set.

get_bkg_source_plot([id, lo, hi, bkg_id, recalc])

Return the data used by plot_bkg_source.

get_cdf_plot()

Return the data used to plot the last CDF.

get_chisqr_plot([id, recalc])

Return the data used by plot_chisqr.

get_conf()

Return the confidence-interval estimation object.

get_conf_opt([name])

Return one or all of the options for the confidence interval method.

get_conf_results()

Return the results of the last conf run.

get_confidence_results()

Return the results of the last conf run.

get_coord([id])

Get the coordinate system used for image analysis.

get_counts([id, filter, bkg_id])

Return the dependent axis of a data set.

get_covar()

Return the covariance estimation object.

get_covar_opt([name])

Return one or all of the options for the covariance method.

get_covar_results()

Return the results of the last covar run.

get_covariance_results()

Return the results of the last covar run.

get_data([id])

Return the data set by identifier.

get_data_contour([id, recalc])

Return the data used by contour_data.

get_data_contour_prefs()

Return the preferences for contour_data.

get_data_image([id])

Return the data used by image_data.

get_data_plot([id, recalc])

Return the data used by plot_data.

get_data_plot_prefs([id])

Return the preferences for plot_data.

get_default_id()

Return the default data set identifier.

get_delchi_plot([id, recalc])

Return the data used by plot_delchi.

get_dep([id, filter, bkg_id])

Return the dependent axis of a data set.

get_dims([id, filter])

Return the dimensions of the data set.

get_draws([id, otherids, niter, covar_matrix])

Run the pyBLoCXS MCMC algorithm.

get_energy_flux_hist([lo, hi, id, num, ...])

Return the data displayed by plot_energy_flux.

get_error([id, filter, bkg_id])

Return the errors on the dependent axis of a data set.

get_exposure([id, bkg_id])

Return the exposure time of a PHA data set.

get_filter([id])

Return the filter expression for a data set.

get_fit_contour([id, recalc])

Return the data used by contour_fit.

get_fit_plot([id, recalc])

Return the data used to create the fit plot.

get_fit_results()

Return the results of the last fit.

get_functions()

Return the functions provided by Sherpa.

get_grouping([id, bkg_id])

Return the grouping array for a PHA data set.

get_indep([id, filter, bkg_id])

Return the independent axes of a data set.

get_int_proj([par, id, otherids, recalc, ...])

Return the interval-projection object.

get_int_unc([par, id, otherids, recalc, ...])

Return the interval-uncertainty object.

get_iter_method_name()

Return the name of the iterative fitting scheme.

get_iter_method_opt([optname])

Return one or all options for the iterative-fitting scheme.

get_kernel_contour([id, recalc])

Return the data used by contour_kernel.

get_kernel_image([id])

Return the data used by image_kernel.

get_kernel_plot([id, recalc])

Return the data used by plot_kernel.

get_method([name])

Return an optimization method.

get_method_name()

Return the name of current Sherpa optimization method.

get_method_opt([optname])

Return one or all of the options for the current optimization method.

get_model([id])

Return the model expression for a data set.

get_model_autoassign_func()

Return the method used to create model component identifiers.

get_model_component(name)

Returns a model component given its name.

get_model_component_image(id[, model])

Return the data used by image_model_component.

get_model_component_plot(id[, model, recalc])

Return the data used to create the model-component plot.

get_model_contour([id, recalc])

Return the data used by contour_model.

get_model_contour_prefs()

Return the preferences for contour_model.

get_model_image([id])

Return the data used by image_model.

get_model_pars(model)

Return the names of the parameters of a model.

get_model_plot([id, recalc])

Return the data used to create the model plot.

get_model_plot_prefs([id])

Return the preferences for plot_model.

get_model_type(model)

Describe a model expression.

get_num_par([id])

Return the number of parameters in a model expression.

get_num_par_frozen([id])

Return the number of frozen parameters in a model expression.

get_num_par_thawed([id])

Return the number of thawed parameters in a model expression.

get_order_plot([id, orders, recalc])

Return the data used by plot_order.

get_par(par)

Return a parameter of a model component.

get_pdf_plot()

Return the data used to plot the last PDF.

get_photon_flux_hist([lo, hi, id, num, ...])

Return the data displayed by plot_photon_flux.

get_pileup_model([id])

Return the pile up model for a data set.

get_prior(par)

Return the prior function for a parameter (MCMC).

get_proj()

Return the confidence-interval estimation object.

get_proj_opt([name])

Return one or all of the options for the confidence interval method.

get_proj_results()

Return the results of the last proj run.

get_projection_results()

Return the results of the last proj run.

get_psf([id])

Return the PSF model defined for a data set.

get_psf_contour([id, recalc])

Return the data used by contour_psf.

get_psf_image([id])

Return the data used by image_psf.

get_psf_plot([id, recalc])

Return the data used by plot_psf.

get_pvalue_plot([null_model, alt_model, ...])

Return the data used by plot_pvalue.

get_pvalue_results()

Return the data calculated by the last plot_pvalue call.

get_quality([id, bkg_id])

Return the quality flags for a PHA data set.

get_rate([id, filter, bkg_id])

Return the count rate of a PHA data set.

get_ratio_contour([id, recalc])

Return the data used by contour_ratio.

get_ratio_image([id])

Return the data used by image_ratio.

get_ratio_plot([id, recalc])

Return the data used by plot_ratio.

get_reg_proj([par0, par1, id, otherids, ...])

Return the region-projection object.

get_reg_unc([par0, par1, id, otherids, ...])

Return the region-uncertainty object.

get_resid_contour([id, recalc])

Return the data used by contour_resid.

get_resid_image([id])

Return the data used by image_resid.

get_resid_plot([id, recalc])

Return the data used by plot_resid.

get_response([id, bkg_id])

Return the response information applied to a PHA data set.

get_rmf([id, resp_id, bkg_id])

Return the RMF associated with a PHA data set.

get_sampler()

Return the current MCMC sampler options.

get_sampler_name()

Return the name of the current MCMC sampler.

get_sampler_opt(opt)

Return an option of the current MCMC sampler.

get_scatter_plot()

Return the data used to plot the last scatter plot.

get_source([id])

Return the source model expression for a data set.

get_source_component_image(id[, model])

Return the data used by image_source_component.

get_source_component_plot(id[, model, recalc])

Return the data used by plot_source_component.

get_source_contour([id, recalc])

Return the data used by contour_source.

get_source_image([id])

Return the data used by image_source.

get_source_plot([id, lo, hi, recalc])

Return the data used by plot_source.

get_specresp([id, filter, bkg_id])

Return the effective area values for a PHA data set.

get_split_plot()

Return the plot attributes for displays with multiple plots.

get_stat([name])

Return the fit statisic.

get_stat_info()

Return the statistic values for the current models.

get_stat_name()

Return the name of the current fit statistic.

get_staterror([id, filter, bkg_id])

Return the statistical error on the dependent axis of a data set.

get_syserror([id, filter, bkg_id])

Return the systematic error on the dependent axis of a data set.

get_trace_plot()

Return the data used to plot the last trace.

group([id, bkg_id])

Turn on the grouping for a PHA data set.

group_adapt(id[, min, bkg_id, maxLength, ...])

Adaptively group to a minimum number of counts.

group_adapt_snr(id[, min, bkg_id, ...])

Adaptively group to a minimum signal-to-noise ratio.

group_bins(id[, num, bkg_id, tabStops])

Group into a fixed number of bins.

group_counts(id[, num, bkg_id, maxLength, ...])

Group into a minimum number of counts per bin.

group_snr(id[, snr, bkg_id, maxLength, ...])

Group into a minimum signal-to-noise ratio.

group_width(id[, num, bkg_id, tabStops])

Group into a fixed bin width.

guess([id, model, limits, values])

Estimate the parameter values and ranges given the loaded data.

ignore([lo, hi])

Exclude data from the fit.

ignore2d([val])

Exclude a spatial region from all data sets.

ignore2d_id(ids[, val])

Exclude a spatial region from a data set.

ignore2d_image([ids])

Exclude pixels using the region defined in the image viewer.

ignore_bad([id, bkg_id])

Exclude channels marked as bad in a PHA data set.

ignore_id(ids[, lo, hi])

Exclude data from the fit for a data set.

image_close()

Close the image viewer.

image_data([id, newframe, tile])

Display a data set in the image viewer.

image_deleteframes()

Delete all the frames open in the image viewer.

image_fit([id, newframe, tile, deleteframes])

Display the data, model, and residuals for a data set in the image viewer.

image_getregion([coord])

Return the region defined in the image viewer.

image_kernel([id, newframe, tile])

Display the 2D kernel for a data set in the image viewer.

image_model([id, newframe, tile])

Display the model for a data set in the image viewer.

image_model_component(id[, model, newframe, ...])

Display a component of the model in the image viewer.

image_open()

Start the image viewer.

image_psf([id, newframe, tile])

Display the 2D PSF model for a data set in the image viewer.

image_ratio([id, newframe, tile])

Display the ratio (data/model) for a data set in the image viewer.

image_resid([id, newframe, tile])

Display the residuals (data - model) for a data set in the image viewer.

image_setregion(reg[, coord])

Set the region to display in the image viewer.

image_source([id, newframe, tile])

Display the source expression for a data set in the image viewer.

image_source_component(id[, model, ...])

Display a component of the source expression in the image viewer.

image_xpaget(arg)

Return the result of an XPA call to the image viewer.

image_xpaset(arg[, data])

Return the result of an XPA call to the image viewer.

int_proj(par[, id, otherids, replot, fast, ...])

Calculate and plot the fit statistic versus fit parameter value.

int_unc(par[, id, otherids, replot, min, ...])

Calculate and plot the fit statistic versus fit parameter value.

link(par, val)

Link a parameter to a value.

list_bkg_ids([id])

List all the background identifiers for a data set.

list_data_ids()

List the identifiers for the loaded data sets.

list_functions([outfile, clobber])

Display the functions provided by Sherpa.

list_iter_methods()

List the iterative fitting schemes.

list_methods()

List the optimization methods.

list_model_components()

List the names of all the model components.

list_model_ids()

List of all the data sets with a source expression.

list_models([show])

List the available model types.

list_pileup_model_ids()

List of all the data sets with a pile up model.

list_priors()

Return the priors set for model parameters, if any.

list_psf_ids()

List of all the data sets with a PSF.

list_response_ids([id, bkg_id])

List all the response identifiers of a data set.

list_samplers()

List the MCMC samplers.

list_stats()

List the fit statistics.

load_arf(id[, arg, resp_id, bkg_id])

Load an ARF from a file and add it to a PHA data set.

load_arrays(id, *args)

Create a data set from array values.

load_ascii(id[, filename, ncols, colkeys, ...])

Load an ASCII file as a data set.

load_ascii_with_errors(id[, filename, ...])

Load an ASCII file with asymmetric errors as a data set.

load_bkg(id[, arg, use_errors, bkg_id])

Load the background from a file and add it to a PHA data set.

load_bkg_arf(id[, arg])

Load an ARF from a file and add it to the background of a PHA data set.

load_bkg_rmf(id[, arg])

Load a RMF from a file and add it to the background of a PHA data set.

load_conv(modelname, filename_or_model, ...)

Load a 1D convolution model.

load_data(id[, filename])

Load a data set from a file.

load_filter(id[, filename, bkg_id, ignore, ...])

Load the filter array from a file and add to a data set.

load_grouping(id[, filename, bkg_id])

Load the grouping scheme from a file and add to a PHA data set.

load_image(id[, arg, coord, dstype])

Load an image as a data set.

load_multi_arfs(id, filenames[, resp_ids])

Load multiple ARFs for a PHA data set.

load_multi_rmfs(id, filenames[, resp_ids])

Load multiple RMFs for a PHA data set.

load_pha(id[, arg, use_errors])

Load a PHA data set.

load_psf(modelname, filename_or_model, ...)

Create a PSF model.

load_quality(id[, filename, bkg_id])

Load the quality array from a file and add to a PHA data set.

load_rmf(id[, arg, resp_id, bkg_id])

Load a RMF from a file and add it to a PHA data set.

load_staterror(id[, filename, bkg_id])

Load the statistical errors from a file.

load_syserror(id[, filename, bkg_id])

Load the systematic errors from a file.

load_table(id[, filename, ncols, colkeys, ...])

Load a FITS binary file as a data set.

load_table_model(modelname, filename[, method])

Load tabular or image data and use it as a model component.

load_template_interpolator(name, ...)

Set the template interpolation scheme.

load_template_model(modelname, templatefile)

Load a set of templates and use it as a model component.

load_user_model(func, modelname[, filename])

Create a user-defined model.

load_user_stat(statname, calc_stat_func[, ...])

Create a user-defined statistic.

load_xstable_model(modelname, filename[, etable])

Load a XSPEC table model.

normal_sample([num, sigma, correlate, id, ...])

Sample the fit statistic by taking the parameter values from a normal distribution.

notice([lo, hi])

Include data in the fit.

notice2d([val])

Include a spatial region of all data sets.

notice2d_id(ids[, val])

Include a spatial region of a data set.

notice2d_image([ids])

Include pixels using the region defined in the image viewer.

notice_id(ids[, lo, hi])

Include data from the fit for a data set.

pack_image([id])

Convert a data set into an image structure.

pack_pha([id])

Convert a PHA data set into a file structure.

pack_table([id])

Convert a data set into a table structure.

paramprompt([val])

Should the user be asked for the parameter values when creating a model?

plot(*args, **kwargs)

Create one or more plot types.

plot_arf([id, resp_id, replot, overplot, ...])

Plot the ARF associated with a data set.

plot_bkg([id, bkg_id, replot, overplot, ...])

Plot the background values for a PHA data set.

plot_bkg_chisqr([id, bkg_id, replot, ...])

Plot the chi-squared value for each point of the background of a PHA data set.

plot_bkg_delchi([id, bkg_id, replot, ...])

Plot the ratio of residuals to error for the background of a PHA data set.

plot_bkg_fit([id, bkg_id, replot, overplot, ...])

Plot the fit results (data, model) for the background of a PHA data set.

plot_bkg_fit_delchi([id, bkg_id, replot, ...])

Plot the fit results, and the residuals, for the background of a PHA data set.

plot_bkg_fit_ratio([id, bkg_id, replot, ...])

Plot the fit results, and the data/model ratio, for the background of a PHA data set.

plot_bkg_fit_resid([id, bkg_id, replot, ...])

Plot the fit results, and the residuals, for the background of a PHA data set.

plot_bkg_model([id, bkg_id, replot, ...])

Plot the model for the background of a PHA data set.

plot_bkg_ratio([id, bkg_id, replot, ...])

Plot the ratio of data to model values for the background of a PHA data set.

plot_bkg_resid([id, bkg_id, replot, ...])

Plot the residual (data-model) values for the background of a PHA data set.

plot_bkg_source([id, lo, hi, bkg_id, ...])

Plot the model expression for the background of a PHA data set.

plot_cdf(points[, name, xlabel, replot, ...])

Plot the cumulative density function of an array of values.

plot_chisqr([id, replot, overplot, clearwindow])

Plot the chi-squared value for each point in a data set.

plot_data([id, replot, overplot, clearwindow])

Plot the data values.

plot_delchi([id, replot, overplot, clearwindow])

Plot the ratio of residuals to error for a data set.

plot_energy_flux([lo, hi, id, num, bins, ...])

Display the energy flux distribution.

plot_fit([id, replot, overplot, clearwindow])

Plot the fit results (data, model) for a data set.

plot_fit_delchi([id, replot, overplot, ...])

Plot the fit results, and the residuals, for a data set.

plot_fit_ratio([id, replot, overplot, ...])

Plot the fit results, and the ratio of data to model, for a data set.

plot_fit_resid([id, replot, overplot, ...])

Plot the fit results, and the residuals, for a data set.

plot_kernel([id, replot, overplot, clearwindow])

Plot the 1D kernel applied to a data set.

plot_model([id, replot, overplot, clearwindow])

Plot the model for a data set.

plot_model_component(id[, model, replot, ...])

Plot a component of the model for a data set.

plot_order([id, orders, replot, overplot, ...])

Plot the model for a data set convolved by the given response.

plot_pdf(points[, name, xlabel, bins, ...])

Plot the probability density function of an array of values.

plot_photon_flux([lo, hi, id, num, bins, ...])

Display the photon flux distribution.

plot_psf([id, replot, overplot, clearwindow])

Plot the 1D PSF model applied to a data set.

plot_pvalue(null_model, alt_model[, ...])

Compute and plot a histogram of likelihood ratios by simulating data.

plot_ratio([id, replot, overplot, clearwindow])

Plot the ratio of data to model for a data set.

plot_resid([id, replot, overplot, clearwindow])

Plot the residuals (data - model) for a data set.

plot_scatter(x, y[, name, xlabel, ylabel, ...])

Create a scatter plot.

plot_source([id, lo, hi, replot, overplot, ...])

Plot the source expression for a data set.

plot_source_component(id[, model, replot, ...])

Plot a component of the source expression for a data set.

plot_trace(points[, name, xlabel, replot, ...])

Create a trace plot of row number versus value.

proj(*args)

Estimate parameter confidence intervals using the projection method.

projection(*args)

Estimate parameter confidence intervals using the projection method.

reg_proj(par0, par1[, id, otherids, replot, ...])

Plot the statistic value as two parameters are varied.

reg_unc(par0, par1[, id, otherids, replot, ...])

Plot the statistic value as two parameters are varied.

resample_data([id, niter, seed])

Resample data with asymmetric error bars.

reset([model, id])

Reset the model parameters to their default settings.

restore([filename])

Load in a Sherpa session from a file.

sample_energy_flux([lo, hi, id, num, ...])

Return the energy flux distribution of a model.

sample_flux([modelcomponent, lo, hi, id, ...])

Return the flux distribution of a model.

sample_photon_flux([lo, hi, id, num, ...])

Return the photon flux distribution of a model.

save([filename, clobber])

Save the current Sherpa session to a file.

save_all([outfile, clobber])

Save the information about the current session to a text file.

save_arrays(filename, args[, fields, ascii, ...])

Write a list of arrays to a file.

save_data(id[, filename, bkg_id, ascii, clobber])

Save the data to a file.

save_delchi(id[, filename, bkg_id, ascii, ...])

Save the ratio of residuals (data-model) to error to a file.

save_error(id[, filename, bkg_id, ascii, ...])

Save the errors to a file.

save_filter(id[, filename, bkg_id, ascii, ...])

Save the filter array to a file.

save_grouping(id[, filename, bkg_id, ascii, ...])

Save the grouping scheme to a file.

save_image(id[, filename, ascii, clobber])

Save the pixel values of a 2D data set to a file.

save_model(id[, filename, bkg_id, ascii, ...])

Save the model values to a file.

save_pha(id[, filename, bkg_id, ascii, clobber])

Save a PHA data set to a file.

save_quality(id[, filename, bkg_id, ascii, ...])

Save the quality array to a file.

save_resid(id[, filename, bkg_id, ascii, ...])

Save the residuals (data-model) to a file.

save_source(id[, filename, bkg_id, ascii, ...])

Save the model values to a file.

save_staterror(id[, filename, bkg_id, ...])

Save the statistical errors to a file.

save_syserror(id[, filename, bkg_id, ascii, ...])

Save the systematic errors to a file.

save_table(id[, filename, ascii, clobber])

Save a data set to a file as a table.

set_analysis(id[, quantity, type, factor])

Set the units used when fitting and displaying spectral data.

set_areascal(id[, area, bkg_id])

Change the fractional area factor of a PHA data set.

set_arf(id[, arf, resp_id, bkg_id])

Set the ARF for use by a PHA data set.

set_backscal(id[, backscale, bkg_id])

Change the area scaling of a PHA data set.

set_bkg(id[, bkg, bkg_id])

Set the background for a PHA data set.

set_bkg_full_model(id[, model, bkg_id])

Define the convolved background model expression for a PHA data set.

set_bkg_model(id[, model, bkg_id])

Set the background model expression for a PHA data set.

set_bkg_source(id[, model, bkg_id])

Set the background model expression for a PHA data set.

set_conf_opt(name, val)

Set an option for the confidence interval method.

set_coord(id[, coord])

Set the coordinate system to use for image analysis.

set_counts(id[, val, bkg_id])

Set the dependent axis of a data set.

set_covar_opt(name, val)

Set an option for the covariance method.

set_data(id[, data])

Set a data set.

set_default_id(id)

Set the default data set identifier.

set_dep(id[, val, bkg_id])

Set the dependent axis of a data set.

set_exposure(id[, exptime, bkg_id])

Change the exposure time of a PHA data set.

set_filter(id[, val, bkg_id, ignore])

Set the filter array of a data set.

set_full_model(id[, model])

Define the convolved model expression for a data set.

set_grouping(id[, val, bkg_id])

Apply a set of grouping flags to a PHA data set.

set_iter_method(meth)

Set the iterative-fitting scheme used in the fit.

set_iter_method_opt(optname, val)

Set an option for the iterative-fitting scheme.

set_method(meth)

Set the optimization method.

set_method_opt(optname, val)

Set an option for the current optimization method.

set_model(id[, model])

Set the source model expression for a data set.

set_model_autoassign_func([func])

Set the method used to create model component identifiers.

set_par(par[, val, min, max, frozen])

Set the value, limits, or behavior of a model parameter.

set_pileup_model(id[, model])

Include a model of the Chandra ACIS pile up when fitting PHA data.

set_prior(par, prior)

Set the prior function to use with a parameter.

set_proj_opt(name, val)

Set an option for the projection method.

set_psf(id[, psf])

Add a PSF model to a data set.

set_quality(id[, val, bkg_id])

Apply a set of quality flags to a PHA data set.

set_rmf(id[, rmf, resp_id, bkg_id])

Set the RMF for use by a PHA data set.

set_sampler(sampler)

Set the MCMC sampler.

set_sampler_opt(opt, value)

Set an option for the current MCMC sampler.

set_source(id[, model])

Set the source model expression for a data set.

set_stat(stat)

Set the statistical method.

set_staterror(id[, val, fractional, bkg_id])

Set the statistical errors on the dependent axis of a data set.

set_syserror(id[, val, fractional, bkg_id])

Set the systematic errors on the dependent axis of a data set.

set_xlinear([plottype])

New plots will display a linear X axis.

set_xlog([plottype])

New plots will display a logarithmically-scaled X axis.

set_ylinear([plottype])

New plots will display a linear Y axis.

set_ylog([plottype])

New plots will display a logarithmically-scaled Y axis.

show_all([id, outfile, clobber])

Report the current state of the Sherpa session.

show_bkg([id, bkg_id, outfile, clobber])

Show the details of the PHA background data sets.

show_bkg_model([id, bkg_id, outfile, clobber])

Display the background model expression used to fit a data set.

show_bkg_source([id, bkg_id, outfile, clobber])

Display the background model expression for a data set.

show_conf([outfile, clobber])

Display the results of the last conf evaluation.

show_covar([outfile, clobber])

Display the results of the last covar evaluation.

show_data([id, outfile, clobber])

Summarize the available data sets.

show_filter([id, outfile, clobber])

Show any filters applied to a data set.

show_fit([outfile, clobber])

Summarize the fit results.

show_kernel([id, outfile, clobber])

Display any kernel applied to a data set.

show_method([outfile, clobber])

Display the current optimization method and options.

show_model([id, outfile, clobber])

Display the model expression used to fit a data set.

show_proj([outfile, clobber])

Display the results of the last proj evaluation.

show_psf([id, outfile, clobber])

Display any PSF model applied to a data set.

show_source([id, outfile, clobber])

Display the source model expression for a data set.

show_stat([outfile, clobber])

Display the current fit statistic.

simulfit([id])

Fit a model to one or more data sets.

subtract([id])

Subtract the background estimate from a data set.

t_sample([num, dof, id, otherids, numcores])

Sample the fit statistic by taking the parameter values from a Student's t-distribution.

thaw(*args)

Allow model parameters to be varied during a fit.

ungroup([id, bkg_id])

Turn off the grouping for a PHA data set.

uniform_sample([num, factor, id, otherids, ...])

Sample the fit statistic by taking the parameter values from an uniform distribution.

unlink(par)

Unlink a parameter value.

unpack_arf(arg)

Create an ARF data structure.

unpack_arrays(*args)

Create a sherpa data object from arrays of data.

unpack_ascii(filename[, ncols, colkeys, ...])

Unpack an ASCII file into a data structure.

unpack_bkg(arg[, use_errors])

Create a PHA data structure for a background data set.

unpack_data(filename, *args, **kwargs)

Create a sherpa data object from a file.

unpack_image(arg[, coord, dstype])

Create an image data structure.

unpack_pha(arg[, use_errors])

Create a PHA data structure.

unpack_rmf(arg)

Create a RMF data structure.

unpack_table(filename[, ncols, colkeys, dstype])

Unpack a FITS binary file into a data structure.

unsubtract([id])

Undo any background subtraction for the data set.

Methods Documentation

add_model(modelclass, args=(), kwargs={})[source] [edit on github]

Create a user-defined model class.

Create a model from a class. The name of the class can then be used to create model components - e.g. with set_model or create_model_component - as with any existing Sherpa model.

Parameters
  • modelclass – A class derived from sherpa.models.model.ArithmeticModel. This class defines the functional form and the parameters of the model.

  • args – Arguments for the class constructor.

  • kwargs – Keyword arguments for the class constructor.

See also

create_model_component

Create a model component.

list_models

List the available model types.

load_table_model

Load tabular data and use it as a model component.

load_user_model

Create a user-defined model.

set_model

Set the source model expression for a data set.

Notes

The load_user_model function is designed to make it easy to add a model, but the interface is not the same as the existing models (such as having to call both load_user_model and add_user_pars for each new instance). The add_model function is used to add a model as a Python class, which is more work to set up, but then acts the same way as the existing models.

Examples

The following example creates a model type called “mygauss1d” which will behave excatly the same as the existing “gauss1d” model. Normally the class used with add_model would add new functionality.

>>> from sherpa.models import Gauss1D
>>> class MyGauss1D(Gauss1D):
...     pass
...
>>> add_model(MyGauss1D)
>>> set_source(mygauss1d.g1 + mygauss1d.g2)
add_user_pars(modelname, parnames, parvals=None, parmins=None, parmaxs=None, parunits=None, parfrozen=None)[source] [edit on github]

Add parameter information to a user model.

Parameters
  • modelname (str) – The name of the user model (created by load_user_model).

  • parnames (array of str) – The names of the parameters. The order of all the parameter arrays must match that expected by the model function (the first argument to load_user_model).

  • parvals (array of number, optional) – The default values of the parameters. If not given each parameter is set to 0.

  • parmins (array of number, optional) – The minimum values of the parameters (hard limit). The default value is -3.40282e+38.

  • parmaxs (array of number, optional) – The maximum values of the parameters (hard limit). The default value is 3.40282e+38.

  • parunits (array of str, optional) – The units of the parameters. This is only used in screen output (i.e. is informational in nature).

  • parfrozen (array of bool, optional) – Should each parameter be frozen. The default is that all parameters are thawed.

See also

add_model

Create a user-defined model class.

load_user_model

Create a user-defined model.

set_par

Set the value, limits, or behavior of a model parameter.

Notes

The parameters must be specified in the order that the function expects. That is, if the function has two parameters, pars[0]=’slope’ and pars[1]=’y_intercept’, then the call to add_user_pars must use the order [“slope”, “y_intercept”].

Examples

Create a user model for the function profile called “myprof”, which has two parameters called “core” and “ampl”, both of which will start with a value of 0.

>>> load_user_model(profile, "myprof")
>>> add_user_pars("myprof", ["core", "ampl"])

Set the starting values, minimum values, and whether or not the parameter is frozen by default, for the “prof” model:

>>> pnames = ["core", "ampl", "intflag"]
>>> pvals = [10, 200, 1]
>>> pmins = [0.01, 0, 0]
>>> pfreeze = [False, False, True]
>>> add_user_pars("prof", pnames, pvals,
...               parmins=pmins, parfrozen=pfreeze)
calc_chisqr(id=None, *otherids)[source] [edit on github]

Calculate the per-bin chi-squared statistic.

Evaluate the model for one or more data sets, compare it to the data using the current statistic, and return an array of chi-squared values for each bin. No fitting is done, as the current model parameter, and any filters, are used.

Parameters
  • id (int or str, optional) – The data set that provides the data. If not given then all data sets with an associated model are used simultaneously.

  • *otherids (int or str, optional) – Other data sets to use in the calculation.

Returns

chisq – The chi-square value for each bin of the data, using the current statistic (as set by set_stat). A value of None is returned if the statistic is not a chi-square distribution.

Return type

array or None

See also

calc_stat

Calculate the fit statistic for a data set.

calc_stat_info

Display the statistic values for the current models.

set_stat

Set the statistical method.

Notes

The output array length equals the sum of the arrays lengths of the requested data sets.

Examples

When called with no arguments, the return value is the chi-squared statistic for each bin in the data sets which have a defined model.

>>> calc_chisqr()

Supplying a specific data set ID to calc_chisqr - such as “1” or “src” - will return the chi-squared statistic array for only that data set.

>>> calc_chisqr(1)
>>> calc_chisqr("src")

Restrict the calculation to just datasets 1 and 3:

>>> calc_chisqr(1, 3)
calc_data_sum(lo=None, hi=None, id=None, bkg_id=None)[source] [edit on github]

Sum up the data values over a pass band.

This function is for one-dimensional data sets: use calc_data_sum2d for two-dimensional data sets.

Parameters
  • lo (number, optional) – If both are None or both are set then sum up the data over the given band. If only one is set then return the data count in the given bin.

  • hi (number, optional) – If both are None or both are set then sum up the data over the given band. If only one is set then return the data count in the given bin.

  • id (int or str, optional) – Use the source expression associated with this data set. If not given then the default identifier is used, as returned by get_default_id.

  • bkg_id (int or str, optional) – If set, use the model associated with the given background component rather than the source model.

Returns

dsum – If a background estimate has been subtracted from the data set then the calculation will use the background-subtracted values.

Return type

number

See also

calc_data_sum2d

Sum up the data values of a 2D data set.

calc_model_sum

Sum up the fitted model over a pass band.

calc_energy_flux

Integrate the unconvolved source model over a pass band.

calc_photon_flux

Integrate the unconcolved source model over a pass band.

calc_source_sum

Sum up the source model over a pass band.

set_model

Set the source model expression for a data set.

Notes

The units of lo and hi are determined by the analysis setting for the data set (e.g. get_analysis). The summation occurs over those points in the data set that lie within this range, not the range itself.

Any existing filter on the data set - e.g. as created by ignore or notice - is ignored by this function.

If a grouping scheme has been applied to the data set that it will be used. This can change the results, since the first and last bins of the selected range may extend outside the requested range.

Examples

Sum up the data values (the dependent axis) for all points or bins in the default data set:

>>> dsum = calc_data_sum()

Calculate the number of counts over the ranges 0.5 to 2 and 0.5 to 7 keV for the default data set, first using the observed signal and then, for the 0.5 to 2 keV band - the background-subtraced estimate:

>>> set_analysis('energy')
>>> calc_data_sum(0.5, 2)
745.0
>>> calc_data_sum(0.5, 7)
60.0
>>> subtract()
>>> calc_data_sum(0.5, 2)
730.9179738207356

Calculate the data value in the bin containing 0.5 keV for the source “core”:

>>> calc_data_sum(0.5, id="core")
0.0

Calculate the sum of the second background component for data set 3 over the independent axis range 12 to 45:

>>> calc_data_sum(12, 45, id=3, bkg_id=2)
calc_data_sum2d(reg=None, id=None)[source] [edit on github]

Sum up the data values of a 2D data set.

This function is for two-dimensional data sets: use calc_model_sum for one-dimensional data sets.

Parameters
  • reg (str, optional) – The spatial filter to use. The default, None, is to use the whole data set.

  • id (int or str, optional) – Use the source expression associated with this data set. If not given then the default identifier is used, as returned by get_default_id.

Returns

dsum – The sum of the data values that lie within the given region.

Return type

number

See also

calc_data_sum

Sum up the data values of a data set.

calc_model_sum2d

Sum up the convolved model for a 2D data set.

calc_source_sum2d

Sum up the unconvolved model for a 2D data set.

set_model

Set the source model expression for a data set.

Notes

The coordinate system of the region filter is determined by the coordinate setting for the data set (e.g. get_coord).

Any existing filter on the data set - e.g. as created by ignore2d or notice2d - is ignored by this function.

Examples

The following examples use the data in the default data set created with the following calls, which sets the y (data) values to be 0 to 11 in a 3 row by 4 column image:

>>> ivals = np.arange(12)
>>> y, x = np.mgrid[10:13, 20:24]
>>> y = y.flatten()
>>> x = x.flatten()
>>> load_arrays(1, x, y, ivals, (3, 4), DataIMG)

with no argument, the full data set is used:

>>> calc_data_sum2d()
66
>>> ivals.sum()
66

and a spatial filter can be used to restrict the region used for the summation:

>>> calc_data_sum2d('circle(22,12,1)')
36
>>> calc_data_sum2d('field()-circle(2,2,1)')
30

Apply the spatial filter to the data set labelled “a2142”:

>>> calc_data_sum2d('rotbox(4232.3,3876,300,200,43)', 'a2142')
calc_energy_flux(lo=None, hi=None, id=None, bkg_id=None, model=None)[source] [edit on github]

Integrate the unconvolved source model over a pass band.

Calculate the integral of E * S(E) over a pass band, where E is the energy of the bin and S(E) the spectral model evaluated for that bin (that is, the model without any instrumental responses applied to it).

Changed in version 4.12.1: The model parameter was added.

Parameters
  • lo (number, optional) – If both are None or both are set then calculate the flux over the given band. If only one is set then calculate the flux density at that point. The units for lo and hi are given by the current analysis setting.

  • hi (number, optional) – If both are None or both are set then calculate the flux over the given band. If only one is set then calculate the flux density at that point. The units for lo and hi are given by the current analysis setting.

  • id (int or str, optional) – Use the source expression associated with this data set. If not given then the default identifier is used, as returned by get_default_id.

  • bkg_id (int or str, optional) – If set, use the model associated with the given background component rather than the source model.

  • model (model, optional) – The model to integrate. If left as None then the source model for the dataset will be used. This can be used to calculate the unabsorbed flux, as shown in the examples.

Returns

flux – The flux or flux density. For X-Spec style models the flux units will be erg/cm^2/s and the flux density units will be either erg/cm^2/s/keV or erg/cm^2/s/Angstrom, depending on the analysis setting.

Return type

number

See also

calc_data_sum

Sum up the data values over a pass band.

calc_model_sum

Sum up the fitted model over a pass band.

calc_source_sum

Sum up the source model over a pass band.

calc_photon_flux

Integrate the unconvolved source model over a pass band.

set_analysis

Set the units used when fitting and displaying spectral data

set_model

Set the source model expression for a data set.

Notes

The units of lo and hi are determined by the analysis setting for the data set (e.g. get_analysis).

Any existing filter on the data set - e.g. as created by ignore or notice - is ignored by this function.

The units of the answer depend on the model components used in the source expression and the axis or axes of the data set. It is unlikely to give sensible results for 2D data sets.

Examples

Calculate the integral of the unconvolved model over the full range of the default data set:

>>> calc_energy_flux()

Return the flux for the data set labelled “core”:

>>> calc_energy_flux(id='core')

Calculate the energy flux over the ranges 0.5 to 2 and 0.5 to 7 keV:

>>> set_analysis('energy')
>>> calc_energy_flux(0.5, 2)
5.7224906878061796e-10
>>> calc_energy_flux(0.5, 7)
1.3758131915063825e-09

Calculate the energy flux density at 0.5 keV for the source “core”:

>>> calc_energy_flux(0.5, id="core")
5.2573786652855304e-10

Calculate the flux for the model applied to the second background component of the ‘jet’ data set, for the wavelength range 20 to 22 Angstroms:

>>> set_analysis('jet', 'wave')
>>> calc_energy_flux(20, 22, id='jet', bkg_id=2)

For the following example, the source model is an absorbed powerlaw - xsphabs.gal * powerlaw.pl - so that the fabs value represents the absorbed flux, and funabs the unabsorbed flux (i.e. just the power-law component):

>>> fabs = calc_energy_flux(0.5, 7)
>>> funabs = calc_energy_flux(0.5, 7, model=pl)
calc_kcorr(z, obslo, obshi, restlo=None, resthi=None, id=None, bkg_id=None)[source] [edit on github]

Calculate the K correction for a model.

The K correction ([1]_, [2]_, [3]_, [4]_) is the numeric factor applied to measured energy fluxes in an observed energy band to estimate the flux in a given rest-frame energy band. It accounts for the change in spectral energy distribution between the desired rest-frame band and the rest-frame band corresponding to the observed band. This is often used when converting a flux into a luminosity.

Parameters
  • z (number or array, >= 0) – The redshift, or redshifts, of the source.

  • obslo (number) – The minimum energy of the observed band.

  • obshi (number) – The maximum energy of the observed band, which must be larger than obslo.

  • restlo (number or None) – The minimum energy of the rest-frame band. If None then use obslo.

  • resthi (number or None) – The maximum energy of the rest-frame band. It must be larger than restlo. If None then use obshi.

  • id (int or str, optional) – Use the source expression associated with this data set. If not given then the default identifier is used, as returned by get_default_id.

  • bkg_id (int or str, optional) – If set, use the model associated with the given background component rather than the source model.

Returns

kz

Return type

number or array of numbers

See also

calc_energy_flux

Integrate the unconvolved source model over a pass band.

dataspace1d

Create the independent axis for a 1D data set.

Notes

This is only defined when the analysis is in ‘energy’ units.

If the model contains a redshift parameter then it should be set to 0, rather than the source redshift.

If the source model is at zero redshift, the observed energy band is olo to ohi, and the rest frame band is rlo to rhi (which need not match the observed band), then the K correction at a redshift z can be calculated as:

frest = calc_energy_flux(rlo, rhi)
fobs  = calc_energy_flux(olo*(1+z), ohi*(1+z))
kz    = frest / fobs

The energy ranges used - rlo to rhi and olo*(1+z) to ohi*(1+z) - should be fully covered by the data grid, otherwise the flux calculation will be truncated at the grid boundaries, leading to incorrect results.

References

1

“The K correction”, Hogg, D.W., et al. http://arxiv.org/abs/astro-ph/0210394

2

Appendix B of Jones et al. 1998, ApJ, vol 495, p. 100-114. http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1998ApJ…495..100J

3

“K and evolutionary corrections from UV to IR”, Poggianti, B.M., A&AS, 1997, vol 122, p. 399-407. http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1997A%26AS..122..399P

4

“Galactic evolution and cosmology - Probing the cosmological deceleration parameter”, Yoshii, Y. & Takahara, F., ApJ, 1988, vol 326, p. 1-18. http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1988ApJ…326….1Y

Examples

Calculate the K correction for an X-Spec apec model, with a source temperature of 6 keV and abundance of 0.3 solar, for the energy band of 0.5 to 2 keV:

>>> dataspace1d(0.01, 10, 0.01)
>>> set_source(xsapec.clus)
>>> clus.kt = 6
>>> clus.abundanc = 0.3
>>> calc_kcorr(0.5, 0.5, 2)
0.82799195070436793

Calculate the K correction for a range of redshifts (0 to 2) using an observed frame of 0.5 to 2 keV and a rest frame of 0.1 to 10 keV (the energy grid is set to ensure that it covers the full energy range; that is the rest-frame band and the observed frame band multiplied by the smallest and largest (1+z) terms):

>>> dataspace1d(0.01, 11, 0.01)
>>> zs = np.linspace(0, 2, 21)
>>> ks = calc_kcorr(zs, 0.5, 2, restlo=0.1, resthi=10)

Calculate the k correction for the background dataset bkg_id=2 for a redshift of 0.5 over the energy range 0.5 to 2 keV with rest-frame energy limits of 2 to 10 keV.

>>> calc_kcorr(0.5, 0.5, 2, 2, 10, bkg_id=2)
calc_model_sum(lo=None, hi=None, id=None, bkg_id=None)[source] [edit on github]

Sum up the fitted model over a pass band.

Sum up M(E) over a range of bins, where M(E) is the per-bin model value after it has been convolved with any instrumental response (e.g. RMF and ARF or PSF). This is intended for one-dimensional data sets: use calc_model_sum2d for two-dimensional data sets. The calc_source_sum function is used to calculate the sum of the model before any instrumental response is applied.

Parameters
  • lo (number, optional) – If both are None or both are set then sum up over the given band. If only one is set then use the model value in the selected bin. The units for lo and hi are given by the current analysis setting.

  • hi (number, optional) – If both are None or both are set then sum up over the given band. If only one is set then use the model value in the selected bin. The units for lo and hi are given by the current analysis setting.

  • id (int or str, optional) – Use the source expression associated with this data set. If not given then the default identifier is used, as returned by get_default_id.

  • bkg_id (int or str, optional) – If set, use the model associated with the given background component rather than the source model.

Returns

signal – The model value (sum or individual bin).

Return type

number

See also

calc_data_sum

Sum up the observed counts over a pass band.

calc_energy_flux

Integrate the unconvolved source model over a pass band.

calc_photon_flux

Integrate the unconvolved source model over a pass band.

calc_source_sum

Sum up the source model over a pass band.

set_model

Set the source model expression for a data set.

Notes

The units of lo and hi are determined by the analysis setting for the data set (e.g. get_analysis). The summation occurs over those points in the data set that lie within this range, not the range itself.

Any existing filter on the data set - e.g. as created by ignore or notice - is ignored by this function.

The units of the answer depend on the model components used in the source expression and the axis or axes of the data set.

Examples

Calculate the model evaluated over the full data set (all points or pixels of the independent axis) for the default data set, and compare it to the sum for th first background component:

>>> tsrc = calc_model_sum()
>>> tbkg = calc_model_sum(bkg_id=1)

Sum up the model over the data range 0.5 to 2 for the default data set, and compared to the data over the same range:

>>> calc_model_sum(0.5, 2)
404.97796489631639
>>> calc_data_sum(0.5, 2)
745.0

Calculate the model sum, evaluated over the range 20 to 22 Angstroms, for the first background component of the “histate” data set:

>>> set_analysis("histate", "wavelength")
>>> calc_model_sum(20, 22, "histate", bkg_id=1)

In the following example, a small data set is created, covering the axis range of -5 to 5, and an off-center gaussian model created (centered at 1). The model is evaluated over the full data grid and then a subset of pixels. As the summation is done over those points in the data set that lie within the requested range, the sum for lo=-2 to hi=1 is the same as that for lo=-1.5 to hi=1.5:

>>> load_arrays('test', [-5, -2.5, 0, 2.5, 5], [2, 5, 12, 7, 3])
>>> set_source('test', gauss1d.gmdl)
>>> gmdl.pos = 1
>>> gmdl.fwhm = 2.4
>>> gmdl.ampl = 10
>>> calc_model_sum(id='test')
9.597121089731253
>>> calc_model_sum(-2, 1, id='test')
6.179472329646446
>>> calc_model_sum(-1.5, 1.5, id='test')
6.179472329646446
calc_model_sum2d(reg=None, id=None)[source] [edit on github]

Sum up the convolved model for a 2D data set.

This function is for two-dimensional data sets: use calc_model_sum for one-dimensional data sets.

Parameters
  • reg (str, optional) – The spatial filter to use. The default, None, is to use the whole data set.

  • id (int or str, optional) – Use the source expression associated with this data set. If not given then the default identifier is used, as returned by get_default_id.

Returns

msum – The sum of the model values, as fitted to the data, that lie within the given region. This includes any PSF included by set_psf.

Return type

number

See also

calc_model_sum

Sum up the fitted model over a pass band.

calc_source_sum2d

Sum up the unconvolved model for a 2D data set.

set_psf

Add a PSF model to a data set.

set_model

Set the source model expression for a data set.

Notes

The coordinate system of the region filter is determined by the coordinate setting for the data set (e.g. get_coord).

Any existing filter on the data set - e.g. as created by ignore2d or notice2d - is ignored by this function.

Examples

The following examples use the data in the default data set created with the following calls, which sets the y (data) values to be 0 to 11 in a 3 row by 4 column image:

>>> ivals = np.arange(12)
>>> y, x = np.mgrid[10:13, 20:24]
>>> y = y.flatten()
>>> x = x.flatten()
>>> load_arrays(1, x, y, ivals, (3, 4), DataIMG)
>>> set_source(const2d.bgnd)
>>> bgnd.c0 = 2

with no argument, the full data set is used. Since the model evaluates to 2 per pixel, and there are 12 pixels in the data set, the result is 24:

>>> calc_model_sum2d()
24.0

and a spatial filter can be used to restrict the region used for the summation:

>>> calc_model_sum2d('circle(22,12,1)')
8.0
>>> calc_model_sum2d('field()-circle(22,12,1)')
16.0

Apply the spatial filter to the model for the data set labelled “a2142”:

>>> calc_model_sum2d('rotbox(4232.3,3876,300,200,43)', 'a2142')
calc_photon_flux(lo=None, hi=None, id=None, bkg_id=None, model=None)[source] [edit on github]

Integrate the unconvolved source model over a pass band.

Calculate the integral of S(E) over a pass band, where S(E) is the spectral model evaluated for each bin (that is, the model without any instrumental responses applied to it).

Changed in version 4.12.1: The model parameter was added.

Parameters
  • lo (number, optional) – If both are None or both are set then calculate the flux over the given band. If only one is set then calculate the flux density at that point. The units for lo and hi are given by the current analysis setting.

  • hi (number, optional) – If both are None or both are set then calculate the flux over the given band. If only one is set then calculate the flux density at that point. The units for lo and hi are given by the current analysis setting.

  • id (int or str, optional) – Use the source expression associated with this data set. If not given then the default identifier is used, as returned by get_default_id.

  • bkg_id (int or str, optional) – If set, use the model associated with the given background component rather than the source model.

  • model (model, optional) – The model to integrate. If left as None then the source model for the dataset will be used. This can be used to calculate the unabsorbed flux, as shown in the examples.

Returns

flux – The flux or flux density. For X-Spec style models the flux units will be photon/cm^2/s and the flux density units will be either photon/cm^2/s/keV or photon/cm^2/s/Angstrom, depending on the analysis setting.

Return type

number

See also

calc_data_sum

Sum up the observed counts over a pass band.

calc_model_sum

Sum up the fitted model over a pass band.

calc_energy_flux

Integrate the unconvolved source model over a pass band.

calc_source_sum

Sum up the source model over a pass band.

set_analysis

Set the units used when fitting and displaying spectral data

set_model

Set the source model expression for a data set.

Notes

The units of lo and hi are determined by the analysis setting for the data set (e.g. get_analysis).

Any existing filter on the data set - e.g. as created by ignore or notice - is ignored by this function.

The units of the answer depend on the model components used in the source expression and the axis or axes of the data set. It is unlikely to give sensible results for 2D data sets.

Examples

Calculate the integral of the unconvolved model over the full range of the default data set:

>>> calc_photon_flux()

Return the flux for the data set labelled “core”:

>>> calc_photon_flux(id='core')

Calculate the photon flux over the ranges 0.5 to 2 and 0.5 to 7 keV, and compared to the energy fluxes for the same bands:

>>> set_analysis('energy')
>>> calc_photon_flux(0.5, 2)
0.35190275
>>> calc_photon_flux(0.5, 7)
0.49050927
>>> calc_energy_flux(0.5, 2)
5.7224906878061796e-10
>>> calc_energy_flux(0.5, 7)
1.3758131915063825e-09

Calculate the photon flux density at 0.5 keV for the source “core”:

>>> calc_photon_flux(0.5, id="core")
0.64978176

Calculate the flux for the model applied to the second background component of the ‘jet’ data set, for the wavelength range 20 to 22 Angstroms:

>>> set_analysis('jet', 'wave')
>>> calc_photon_flux(20, 22, id='jet', bkg_id=2)

For the following example, the source model is an absorbed powerlaw - xsphabs.gal * powerlaw.pl - so that the fabs value represents the absorbed flux, and funabs the unabsorbed flux (i.e. just the power-law component):

>>> fabs = calc_photon_flux(0.5, 7)
>>> funabs = calc_photon_flux(0.5, 7, model=pl)
calc_source_sum(lo=None, hi=None, id=None, bkg_id=None)[source] [edit on github]

Sum up the source model over a pass band.

Sum up S(E) over a range of bins, where S(E) is the per-bin model value before it has been convolved with any instrumental response (e.g. RMF and ARF or PSF). This is intended for one-dimensional data sets: use calc_source_sum2d for two-dimensional data sets. The calc_model_sum function is used to calculate the sum of the model after any instrumental response is applied.

Parameters
  • lo (number, optional) – If both are None or both are set then sum up over the given band. If only one is set then use the model value in the selected bin. The units for lo and hi are given by the current analysis setting.

  • hi (number, optional) – If both are None or both are set then sum up over the given band. If only one is set then use the model value in the selected bin. The units for lo and hi are given by the current analysis setting.

  • id (int or str, optional) – Use the source expression associated with this data set. If not given then the default identifier is used, as returned by get_default_id.

  • bkg_id (int or str, optional) – If set, use the model associated with the given background component rather than the source model.

Returns

signal – The model value (sum or individual bin).

Return type

number

See also

calc_data_sum

Sum up the observed counts over a pass band.

calc_model_sum

Sum up the fitted model over a pass band.

calc_energy_flux

Integrate the unconvolved source model over a pass band.

calc_photon_flux

Integrate the unconvolved source model over a pass band.

set_model

Set the source model expression for a data set.

Notes

The units of lo and hi are determined by the analysis setting for the data set (e.g. get_analysis). The summation occurs over those points in the data set that lie within this range, not the range itself.

Any existing filter on the data set - e.g. as created by ignore or notice - is ignored by this function.

The units of the answer depend on the model components used in the source expression and the axis or axes of the data set.

Examples

Calculate the model evaluated over the full data set (all points or pixels of the independent axis) for the default data set, and compare it to the sum for th first background component:

>>> tsrc = calc_source_sum()
>>> tbkg = calc_source_sum(bkg_id=1)

Sum up the model over the data range 0.5 to 2 for the default data set:

>>> calc_source_sum(0.5, 2)
139.12819041922018

Compare the output of the calc_source_sum and calc_photon_flux routines. A 1099-bin data space is created, with a model which has a value of 1 for each bin. As the bin width is constant, at 0.01, the integrated value, calculated by calc_photon_flux, is one hundredth the value returned by calc_data_sum:

>>> dataspace1d(0.01, 11, 0.01, id="test")
>>> set_source("test", const1d.bflat)
>>> bflat.c0 = 1
>>> calc_source_sum(id="test")
1099.0
>>> calc_photon_flux(id="test")
10.99

In the following example, a small data set is created, covering the axis range of -5 to 5, and an off-center gaussian model created (centered at 1). The model is evaluated over the full data grid and then a subset of pixels. As the summation is done over those points in the data set that lie within the requested range, the sum for lo=-2 to hi=1 is the same as that for lo=-1.5 to hi=1.5:

>>> load_arrays('test', [-5, -2.5, 0, 2.5, 5], [2, 5, 12, 7, 3])
>>> set_source('test', gauss1d.gmdl)
>>> gmdl.pos = 1
>>> gmdl.fwhm = 2.4
>>> gmdl.ampl = 10
>>> calc_source_sum(id='test')
9.597121089731253
>>> calc_source_sum(-2, 1, id='test')
6.179472329646446
>>> calc_source_sum(-1.5, 1.5, id='test')
6.179472329646446
calc_source_sum2d(reg=None, id=None)[source] [edit on github]

Sum up the unconvolved model for a 2D data set.

This function is for two-dimensional data sets: use calc_source_sum for one-dimensional data sets.

Parameters
  • reg (str, optional) – The spatial filter to use. The default, None, is to use the whole data set.

  • id (int or str, optional) – Use the source expression associated with this data set. If not given then the default identifier is used, as returned by get_default_id.

Returns

msum – The sum of the model values that lie within the given region. This does not include any PSF included by set_psf.

Return type

number

See also

calc_model_sum2d

Sum up the convolved model for a 2D data set.

calc_source_sum

Sum up the model over a pass band.

set_psf

Add a PSF model to a data set.

set_model

Set the source model expression for a data set.

Notes

The coordinate system of the region filter is determined by the coordinate setting for the data set (e.g. get_coord).

Any existing filter on the data set - e.g. as created by ignore2d or notice2d - is ignored by this function.

Examples

The following examples use the data in the default data set created with the following calls, which sets the y (data) values to be 0 to 11 in a 3 row by 4 column image:

>>> ivals = np.arange(12)
>>> y, x = np.mgrid[10:13, 20:24]
>>> y = y.flatten()
>>> x = x.flatten()
>>> load_arrays(1, x, y, ivals, (3, 4), DataIMG)
>>> set_source(const2d.bgnd)
>>> bgnd.c0 = 2

with no argument, the full data set is used. Since the model evaluates to 2 per pixel, and there are 12 pixels in the data set, the result is 24:

>>> calc_source_sum2d()
24.0

and a spatial filter can be used to restrict the region used for the summation:

>>> calc_source_sum2d('circle(22,12,1)')
8.0
>>> calc_source_sum2d('field()-circle(22,12,1)')
16.0

Apply the spatial filter to the model for the data set labelled “a2142”:

>>> calc_source_sum2d('rotbox(4232.3,3876,300,200,43)', 'a2142')
calc_stat(id=None, *otherids)[source] [edit on github]

Calculate the fit statistic for a data set.

Evaluate the model for one or more data sets, compare it to the data using the current statistic, and return the value. No fitting is done, as the current model parameter, and any filters, are used.

Parameters
  • id (int or str, optional) – The data set that provides the data. If not given then all data sets with an associated model are used simultaneously.

  • *otherids (int or str, optional) – Other data sets to use in the calculation.

Returns

stat – The current statistic value.

Return type

number

See also

calc_chisqr

Calculate the per-bin chi-squared statistic.

calc_stat_info

Display the statistic values for the current models.

set_stat

Set the statistical method.

Examples

Calculate the statistic for the model and data in the default data set:

>>> stat = calc_stat()

Find the statistic for data set 3:

>>> stat = calc_stat(3)

When fitting to multiple data sets, you can get the contribution to the total fit statistic from only one data set, or from several by listing the datasets explicitly. The following finds the contribution from the data sets labelled “core” and “jet”:

>>> stat = calc_stat("core", "jet")

Calculate the statistic value using two different statistics:

>>> set_stat('cash')
>>> s1 = calc_stat()
>>> set_stat('cstat')
>>> s2 = calc_stat()
calc_stat_info()[source] [edit on github]

Display the statistic values for the current models.

Displays the statistic value for each data set, and the combined fit, using the current set of models, parameters, and ranges. The output is printed to stdout, and so is intended for use in interactive analysis. The get_stat_info function returns the same information but as an array of Python structures.

See also

calc_stat

Calculate the fit statistic for a data set.

get_stat_info

Return the statistic values for the current models.

Notes

If a fit to a particular data set has not been made, or values - such as parameter settings, the noticed data range, or choice of statistic - have been changed since the last fit, then the results for that data set may not be meaningful and will therefore bias the results for the simultaneous results.

The information returned by calc_stat_info includes:

Dataset

The dataset identifier (or identifiers).

Statistic

The name of the statistic used to calculate the results.

Fit statistic value

The current fit statistic value.

Data points

The number of bins used in the fit.

Degrees of freedom

The number of bins minus the number of thawed parameters.

Some fields are only returned for a subset of statistics:

Probability (Q-value)

A measure of the probability that one would observe the reduced statistic value, or a larger value, if the assumed model is true and the best-fit model parameters are the true parameter values.

Reduced statistic

The fit statistic value divided by the number of degrees of freedom.

Examples

>>> calc_stat_info()
clean()[source] [edit on github]

Clear out the current Sherpa session.

The clean function removes all data sets and model assignments, and restores the default settings for the optimisation and fit statistic.

Changed in version 4.15.0: The model names are now removed from the global symbol table.

See also

save

Save the current Sherpa session to a file.

restore

Load in a Sherpa session from a file.

sherpa.astro.ui.save_all

Save the Sherpa session as an ASCII file.

Examples

>>> clean()

After the call to clean, the line and bgnd variables will be removed, so accessing them would cause a NameError.

>>> set_source(gauss1d.line + const1d.bgnd)
>>> bgnd.c0.min = 0
>>> print(line)
>>> clean()
conf(*args)[source] [edit on github]

Estimate parameter confidence intervals using the confidence method.

The conf command computes confidence interval bounds for the specified model parameters in the dataset. A given parameter’s value is varied along a grid of values while the values of all the other thawed parameters are allowed to float to new best-fit values. The get_conf and set_conf_opt commands can be used to configure the error analysis; an example being changing the ‘sigma’ field to 1.6 (i.e. 90%) from its default value of 1. The output from the routine is displayed on screen, and the get_conf_results routine can be used to retrieve the results.

Parameters
  • id (int or str, optional) – The data set, or sets, that provides the data. If not given then all data sets with an associated model are used simultaneously.

  • parameter (sherpa.models.parameter.Parameter, optional) – The default is to calculate the confidence limits on all thawed parameters of the model, or models, for all the data sets. The evaluation can be restricted by listing the parameters to use. Note that each parameter should be given as a separate argument, rather than as a list. For example conf(g1.ampl, g1.sigma).

  • model (sherpa.models.model.Model, optional) – Select all the thawed parameters in the model.

See also

covar

Estimate the confidence intervals using the covariance method.

get_conf

Return the confidence-interval estimation object.

get_conf_results

Return the results of the last conf run.

int_proj

Plot the statistic value as a single parameter is varied.

int_unc

Plot the statistic value as a single parameter is varied.

reg_proj

Plot the statistic value as two parameters are varied.

reg_unc

Plot the statistic value as two parameters are varied.

set_conf_opt

Set an option of the conf estimation object.

Notes

The function does not follow the normal Python standards for parameter use, since it is designed for easy interactive use. When called with multiple ids or parameters values, the order is unimportant, since any argument that is not defined as a model parameter is assumed to be a data id.

The conf function is different to covar, in that in that all other thawed parameters are allowed to float to new best-fit values, instead of being fixed to the initial best-fit values as they are in covar. While conf is more general (e.g. allowing the user to examine the parameter space away from the best-fit point), it is in the strictest sense no more accurate than covar for determining confidence intervals.

The conf function is a replacement for the proj function, which uses a different algorithm to estimate parameter confidence limits.

An estimated confidence interval is accurate if and only if:

  1. the chi^2 or logL surface in parameter space is approximately shaped like a multi-dimensional paraboloid, and

  2. the best-fit point is sufficiently far from parameter space boundaries.

One may determine if these conditions hold, for example, by plotting the fit statistic as a function of each parameter’s values (the curve should approximate a parabola) and by examining contour plots of the fit statistics made by varying the values of two parameters at a time (the contours should be elliptical, and parameter space boundaries should be no closer than approximately 3 sigma from the best-fit point). The int_proj and reg_proj commands may be used for this.

If either of the conditions given above does not hold, then the output from conf may be meaningless except to give an idea of the scale of the confidence intervals. To accurately determine the confidence intervals, one would have to reparameterize the model, use Monte Carlo simulations, or Bayesian methods.

As the calculation can be computer intensive, the default behavior is to use all available CPU cores to speed up the analysis. This can be changed be varying the numcores option - or setting parallel to False - either with set_conf_opt or get_conf.

As conf estimates intervals for each parameter independently, the relationship between sigma and the change in statistic value delta_S can be particularly simple: sigma = the square root of delta_S for statistics sampled from the chi-square distribution and for the Cash statistic, and is approximately equal to the square root of (2 * delta_S) for fits based on the general log-likelihood. The default setting is to calculate the one-sigma interval, which can be changed with the sigma option to set_conf_opt or get_conf.

The limit calculated by conf is basically a 1-dimensional root in the translated coordinate system (translated by the value of the statistic at the minimum plus sigma^2). The Taylor series expansion of the multi-dimensional function at the minimum is:

f(x + dx) ~ f(x) + grad( f(x) )^T dx + dx^T Hessian( f(x) ) dx + ...

where x is understood to be the n-dimensional vector representing the free parameters to be fitted and the super-script ‘T’ is the transpose of the row-vector. At or near the minimum, the gradient of the function is zero or negligible, respectively. So the leading term of the expansion is quadratic. The best root finding algorithm for a curve which is approximately parabolic is Muller’s method [1]_. Muller’s method is a generalization of the secant method [2]_: the secant method is an iterative root finding method that approximates the function by a straight line through two points, whereas Muller’s method is an iterative root finding method that approxmiates the function by a quadratic polynomial through three points.

Three data points are the minimum input to Muller’s root finding method. The first point to be submitted to the Muller’s root finding method is the point at the minimum. To strategically choose the other two data points, the confidence function uses the output from covariance as the second data point. To generate the third data points for the input to Muller’s root finding method, the secant root finding method is used since it only requires two data points to generate the next best approximation of the root.

However, there are cases where conf cannot locate the root even though the root is bracketed within an interval (perhaps due to the bad resolution of the data). In such cases, when the option openinterval is set to False (which is the default), the routine will print a warning message about not able to find the root within the set tolerance and the function will return the average of the open interval which brackets the root. If openinterval is set to True then conf will print the minimal open interval which brackets the root (not to be confused with the lower and upper bound of the confidence interval). The most accurate thing to do is to return an open interval where the root is localized/bracketed rather then the average of the open interval (since the average of the interval is not a root within the specified tolerance).

References

1

Muller, David E., “A Method for Solving Algebraic Equations Using an Automatic Computer,” MTAC, 10 (1956), 208-215.

2

Numerical Recipes in Fortran, 2nd edition, 1986, Press et al., p. 347

Examples

Evaluate confidence intervals for all thawed parameters in all data sets with an associated source model. The results are then stored in the variable res.

>>> conf()
>>> res = get_conf_results()

Only evaluate the parameters associated with data set 2:

>>> conf(2)

Only evaluate the intervals for the pos.xpos and pos.ypos parameters:

>>> conf(pos.xpos, pos.ypos)

Change the limits to be 1.6 sigma (90%) rather than the default 1 sigma.

>>> set_conf_opt('sigma', 1.6)
>>> conf()

Only evaluate the clus.kt parameter for the data sets with identifiers “obs1”, “obs5”, and “obs6”. This will still use the 1.6 sigma setting from the previous run.

>>> conf("obs1", "obs5", "obs6", clus.kt)

Only use two cores when evaluating the errors for the parameters used in the model for data set 3:

>>> set_conf_opt('numcores', 2)
>>> conf(3)

Estimate the errors for all the thawed parameters from the line model and the clus.kt parameter for datasets 1, 3, and 4:

>>> conf(1, 3, 4, line, clus.kt)
confidence(*args) [edit on github]

Estimate parameter confidence intervals using the confidence method.

The conf command computes confidence interval bounds for the specified model parameters in the dataset. A given parameter’s value is varied along a grid of values while the values of all the other thawed parameters are allowed to float to new best-fit values. The get_conf and set_conf_opt commands can be used to configure the error analysis; an example being changing the ‘sigma’ field to 1.6 (i.e. 90%) from its default value of 1. The output from the routine is displayed on screen, and the get_conf_results routine can be used to retrieve the results.

Parameters
  • id (int or str, optional) – The data set, or sets, that provides the data. If not given then all data sets with an associated model are used simultaneously.

  • parameter (sherpa.models.parameter.Parameter, optional) – The default is to calculate the confidence limits on all thawed parameters of the model, or models, for all the data sets. The evaluation can be restricted by listing the parameters to use. Note that each parameter should be given as a separate argument, rather than as a list. For example conf(g1.ampl, g1.sigma).

  • model (sherpa.models.model.Model, optional) – Select all the thawed parameters in the model.

See also

covar

Estimate the confidence intervals using the covariance method.

get_conf

Return the confidence-interval estimation object.

get_conf_results

Return the results of the last conf run.

int_proj

Plot the statistic value as a single parameter is varied.

int_unc

Plot the statistic value as a single parameter is varied.

reg_proj

Plot the statistic value as two parameters are varied.

reg_unc

Plot the statistic value as two parameters are varied.

set_conf_opt

Set an option of the conf estimation object.

Notes

The function does not follow the normal Python standards for parameter use, since it is designed for easy interactive use. When called with multiple ids or parameters values, the order is unimportant, since any argument that is not defined as a model parameter is assumed to be a data id.

The conf function is different to covar, in that in that all other thawed parameters are allowed to float to new best-fit values, instead of being fixed to the initial best-fit values as they are in covar. While conf is more general (e.g. allowing the user to examine the parameter space away from the best-fit point), it is in the strictest sense no more accurate than covar for determining confidence intervals.

The conf function is a replacement for the proj function, which uses a different algorithm to estimate parameter confidence limits.

An estimated confidence interval is accurate if and only if:

  1. the chi^2 or logL surface in parameter space is approximately shaped like a multi-dimensional paraboloid, and

  2. the best-fit point is sufficiently far from parameter space boundaries.

One may determine if these conditions hold, for example, by plotting the fit statistic as a function of each parameter’s values (the curve should approximate a parabola) and by examining contour plots of the fit statistics made by varying the values of two parameters at a time (the contours should be elliptical, and parameter space boundaries should be no closer than approximately 3 sigma from the best-fit point). The int_proj and reg_proj commands may be used for this.

If either of the conditions given above does not hold, then the output from conf may be meaningless except to give an idea of the scale of the confidence intervals. To accurately determine the confidence intervals, one would have to reparameterize the model, use Monte Carlo simulations, or Bayesian methods.

As the calculation can be computer intensive, the default behavior is to use all available CPU cores to speed up the analysis. This can be changed be varying the numcores option - or setting parallel to False - either with set_conf_opt or get_conf.

As conf estimates intervals for each parameter independently, the relationship between sigma and the change in statistic value delta_S can be particularly simple: sigma = the square root of delta_S for statistics sampled from the chi-square distribution and for the Cash statistic, and is approximately equal to the square root of (2 * delta_S) for fits based on the general log-likelihood. The default setting is to calculate the one-sigma interval, which can be changed with the sigma option to set_conf_opt or get_conf.

The limit calculated by conf is basically a 1-dimensional root in the translated coordinate system (translated by the value of the statistic at the minimum plus sigma^2). The Taylor series expansion of the multi-dimensional function at the minimum is:

f(x + dx) ~ f(x) + grad( f(x) )^T dx + dx^T Hessian( f(x) ) dx + ...

where x is understood to be the n-dimensional vector representing the free parameters to be fitted and the super-script ‘T’ is the transpose of the row-vector. At or near the minimum, the gradient of the function is zero or negligible, respectively. So the leading term of the expansion is quadratic. The best root finding algorithm for a curve which is approximately parabolic is Muller’s method [1]_. Muller’s method is a generalization of the secant method [2]_: the secant method is an iterative root finding method that approximates the function by a straight line through two points, whereas Muller’s method is an iterative root finding method that approxmiates the function by a quadratic polynomial through three points.

Three data points are the minimum input to Muller’s root finding method. The first point to be submitted to the Muller’s root finding method is the point at the minimum. To strategically choose the other two data points, the confidence function uses the output from covariance as the second data point. To generate the third data points for the input to Muller’s root finding method, the secant root finding method is used since it only requires two data points to generate the next best approximation of the root.

However, there are cases where conf cannot locate the root even though the root is bracketed within an interval (perhaps due to the bad resolution of the data). In such cases, when the option openinterval is set to False (which is the default), the routine will print a warning message about not able to find the root within the set tolerance and the function will return the average of the open interval which brackets the root. If openinterval is set to True then conf will print the minimal open interval which brackets the root (not to be confused with the lower and upper bound of the confidence interval). The most accurate thing to do is to return an open interval where the root is localized/bracketed rather then the average of the open interval (since the average of the interval is not a root within the specified tolerance).

References

1

Muller, David E., “A Method for Solving Algebraic Equations Using an Automatic Computer,” MTAC, 10 (1956), 208-215.

2

Numerical Recipes in Fortran, 2nd edition, 1986, Press et al., p. 347

Examples

Evaluate confidence intervals for all thawed parameters in all data sets with an associated source model. The results are then stored in the variable res.

>>> conf()
>>> res = get_conf_results()

Only evaluate the parameters associated with data set 2:

>>> conf(2)

Only evaluate the intervals for the pos.xpos and pos.ypos parameters:

>>> conf(pos.xpos, pos.ypos)

Change the limits to be 1.6 sigma (90%) rather than the default 1 sigma.

>>> set_conf_opt('sigma', 1.6)
>>> conf()

Only evaluate the clus.kt parameter for the data sets with identifiers “obs1”, “obs5”, and “obs6”. This will still use the 1.6 sigma setting from the previous run.

>>> conf("obs1", "obs5", "obs6", clus.kt)

Only use two cores when evaluating the errors for the parameters used in the model for data set 3:

>>> set_conf_opt('numcores', 2)
>>> conf(3)

Estimate the errors for all the thawed parameters from the line model and the clus.kt parameter for datasets 1, 3, and 4:

>>> conf(1, 3, 4, line, clus.kt)
contour(*args, **kwargs)[source] [edit on github]

Create a contour plot for an image data set.

Create one or more contour plots, depending on the arguments it is set: a plot type, followed by an optional data set identifier, and this can be repeated. If no data set identifier is given for a plot type, the default identifier - as returned by get_default_id - is used. This is for 2D data sets.

Changed in version 4.12.2: Keyword arguments, such as alpha, can be sent to each plot.

Raises

sherpa.utils.err.DataErr – The data set does not support the requested plot type.

See also

contour_data

Contour the values of an image data set.

contour_fit

Contour the fit to a data set.

contour_fit_resid

Contour the fit and the residuals to a data set.

contour_kernel

Contour the kernel applied to the model of an image data set.

contour_model

Contour the values of the model, including any PSF.

contour_psf

Contour the PSF applied to the model of an image data set.

contour_ratio

Contour the ratio of data to model.

contour_resid

Contour the residuals of the fit.

contour_source

Contour the values of the model, without any PSF.

get_default_id

Return the default data set identifier.

sherpa.astro.ui.set_coord

Set the coordinate system to use for image analysis.

Notes

The supported plot types depend on the data set type, and include the following list. There are also individual functions, with contour_ prepended to the plot type, such as contour_data and the contour_fit_resid variant:

data

The data.

fit

Contours of the data and the source model.

fit_resid

Two plots: the first is the contours of the data and the source model and the second is the residuals.

kernel

The kernel.

model

The source model including any PSF convolution set by set_psf.

psf

The PSF.

ratio

Contours of the ratio image, formed by dividing the data by the model.

resid

Contours of the residual image, formed by subtracting the model from the data.

source

The source model (without any PSF convolution set by set_psf).

The keyword arguments are sent to each plot (so care must be taken to ensure they are valid for all plots).

Examples

>>> contour('data')
>>> contour('data', 1, 'data', 2)
>>> contour('data', 'model')
>>> contour('data', 'model', 'fit', 'resid')
>>> contour('data', 'model', alpha=0.7)
contour_data(id=None, replot=False, overcontour=False, **kwargs)[source] [edit on github]

Contour the values of an image data set.

Parameters
  • id (int or str, optional) – The data set that provides the data. If not given then the default identifier is used, as returned by get_default_id.

  • replot (bool, optional) – Set to True to use the values calculated by the last call to contour_data. The default is False.

  • overcontour (bool, optional) – If True then add the data to an existing plot, otherwise create a new contour plot. The default is False.

See also

get_data_contour

Return the data used by contour_data.

get_data_contour_prefs

Return the preferences for contour_data.

get_default_id

Return the default data set identifier.

contour

Create one or more plot types.

sherpa.astro.ui.set_coord

Set the coordinate system to use for image analysis.

Examples

Plot the data from the default data set:

>>> contour_data()

Contour the data and then overplot the data from the second data set:

>>> contour_data()
>>> contour_data(2, overcontour=True)
contour_fit(id=None, replot=False, overcontour=False, **kwargs)[source] [edit on github]

Contour the fit to a data set.

Overplot the model - including any PSF - on the data. The preferences are the same as contour_data and contour_model.

Parameters
  • id (int or str, optional) – The data set that provides the data and model. If not given then the default identifier is used, as returned by get_default_id.

  • replot (bool, optional) – Set to True to use the values calculated by the last call to contour_fit. The default is False.

  • overcontour (bool, optional) – If True then add the data to an existing plot, otherwise create a new contour plot. The default is False.

See also

get_fit_contour

Return the data used by contour_fit.

get_default_id

Return the default data set identifier.

contour

Create one or more plot types.

sherpa.astro.ui.set_coord

Set the coordinate system to use for image analysis.

Examples

Plot the fit for the default data set:

>>> contour_fit()

Overplot the fit to data set ‘s2’ on that of the default data set:

>>> contour_fit()
>>> contour_fit('s2', overcontour=True)
contour_fit_resid(id=None, replot=False, overcontour=False, **kwargs)[source] [edit on github]

Contour the fit and the residuals to a data set.

Overplot the model - including any PSF - on the data. In a separate plot contour the residuals. The preferences are the same as contour_data and contour_model.

Parameters
  • id (int or str, optional) – The data set that provides the data and model. If not given then the default identifier is used, as returned by get_default_id.

  • replot (bool, optional) – Set to True to use the values calculated by the last call to contour_fit_resid. The default is False.

  • overcontour (bool, optional) – If True then add the data to an existing plot, otherwise create a new contour plot. The default is False.

See also

get_fit_contour

Return the data used by contour_fit.

get_default_id

Return the default data set identifier.

contour

Create one or more plot types.

contour_fit

Contour the fit to a data set.

contour_resid

Contour the residuals of the fit.

sherpa.astro.ui.set_coord

Set the coordinate system to use for image analysis.

Examples

Plot the fit and residuals for the default data set:

>>> contour_fit_resid()
contour_kernel(id=None, replot=False, overcontour=False, **kwargs)[source] [edit on github]

Contour the kernel applied to the model of an image data set.

If the data set has no PSF applied to it, the model is displayed.

Parameters
  • id (int or str, optional) – The data set that provides the model. If not given then the default identifier is used, as returned by get_default_id.

  • replot (bool, optional) – Set to True to use the values calculated by the last call to contour_kernel. The default is False.

  • overcontour (bool, optional) – If True then add the data to an existing plot, otherwise create a new contour plot. The default is False.

See also

get_psf_contour

Return the data used by contour_psf.

get_default_id

Return the default data set identifier.

contour

Create one or more plot types.

contour_psf

Contour the PSF applied to the model of an image data set.

sherpa.astro.ui.set_coord

Set the coordinate system to use for image analysis.

set_psf

Add a PSF model to a data set.

contour_model(id=None, replot=False, overcontour=False, **kwargs)[source] [edit on github]

Create a contour plot of the model.

Displays a contour plot of the values of the model, evaluated on the data, including any PSF kernel convolution (if set).

Parameters
  • id (int or str, optional) – The data set that provides the model. If not given then the default identifier is used, as returned by get_default_id.

  • replot (bool, optional) – Set to True to use the values calculated by the last call to contour_model. The default is False.

  • overcontour (bool, optional) – If True then add the data to an existing plot, otherwise create a new contour plot. The default is False.

See also

get_model_contour

Return the data used by contour_model.

get_model_contour_prefs

Return the preferences for contour_model.

get_default_id

Return the default data set identifier.

contour

Create one or more plot types.

contour_source

Create a contour plot of the unconvolved spatial model.

sherpa.astro.ui.set_coord

Set the coordinate system to use for image analysis.

set_psf

Add a PSF model to a data set.

Examples

Plot the model from the default data set:

>>> contour_model()

Compare the model without and with the PSF component, for the “img” data set:

>>> contour_source("img")
>>> contour_model("img", overcontour=True)
contour_psf(id=None, replot=False, overcontour=False, **kwargs)[source] [edit on github]

Contour the PSF applied to the model of an image data set.

If the data set has no PSF applied to it, the model is displayed.

Parameters
  • id (int or str, optional) – The data set that provides the model. If not given then the default identifier is used, as returned by get_default_id.

  • replot (bool, optional) – Set to True to use the values calculated by the last call to contour_psf. The default is False.

  • overcontour (bool, optional) – If True then add the data to an existing plot, otherwise create a new contour plot. The default is False.

See also

get_psf_contour

Return the data used by contour_psf.

get_default_id

Return the default data set identifier.

contour

Create one or more plot types.

contour_kernel

Contour the kernel applied to the model of an image data set.

sherpa.astro.ui.set_coord

Set the coordinate system to use for image analysis.

set_psf

Add a PSF model to a data set.

contour_ratio(id=None, replot=False, overcontour=False, **kwargs)[source] [edit on github]

Contour the ratio of data to model.

The ratio image is formed by dividing the data by the current model, including any PSF. The preferences are the same as contour_data.

Parameters
  • id (int or str, optional) – The data set that provides the data and model. If not given then the default identifier is used, as returned by get_default_id.

  • replot (bool, optional) – Set to True to use the values calculated by the last call to contour_ratio. The default is False.

  • overcontour (bool, optional) – If True then add the data to an existing plot, otherwise create a new contour plot. The default is False.

See also

get_ratio_contour

Return the data used by contour_ratio.

get_default_id

Return the default data set identifier.

contour

Create one or more plot types.

sherpa.astro.ui.set_coord

Set the coordinate system to use for image analysis.

Examples

Plot the ratio from the default data set:

>>> contour_ratio()

Overplot the ratio on the residuals:

>>> contour_resid('img')
>>> contour_ratio('img', overcontour=True)
contour_resid(id=None, replot=False, overcontour=False, **kwargs)[source] [edit on github]

Contour the residuals of the fit.

The residuals are formed by subtracting the current model - including any PSF - from the data. The preferences are the same as contour_data.

Parameters
  • id (int or str, optional) – The data set that provides the data and model. If not given then the default identifier is used, as returned by get_default_id.

  • replot (bool, optional) – Set to True to use the values calculated by the last call to contour_resid. The default is False.

  • overcontour (bool, optional) – If True then add the data to an existing plot, otherwise create a new contour plot. The default is False.

See also

get_resid_contour

Return the data used by contour_resid.

get_default_id

Return the default data set identifier.

contour

Create one or more plot types.

sherpa.astro.ui.set_coord

Set the coordinate system to use for image analysis.

Examples

Plot the residuals from the default data set:

>>> contour_resid()

Overplot the residuals on the model:

>>> contour_model('img')
>>> contour_resid('img', overcontour=True)
contour_source(id=None, replot=False, overcontour=False, **kwargs)[source] [edit on github]

Create a contour plot of the unconvolved spatial model.

Displays a contour plot of the values of the model, evaluated on the data, without any PSF kernel convolution applied. The preferences are the same as contour_model.

Parameters
  • id (int or str, optional) – The data set that provides the model. If not given then the default identifier is used, as returned by get_default_id.

  • replot (bool, optional) – Set to True to use the values calculated by the last call to contour_source. The default is False.

  • overcontour (bool, optional) – If True then add the data to an existing plot, otherwise create a new contour plot. The default is False.

See also

get_source_contour

Return the data used by contour_source.

get_default_id

Return the default data set identifier.

contour

Create one or more plot types.

contour_model

Create a contour plot of the model.

sherpa.astro.ui.set_coord

Set the coordinate system to use for image analysis.

set_psf

Add a PSF model to a data set.

Examples

Plot the model from the default data set:

>>> contour_source()

Compare the model without and with the PSF component, for the “img” data set:

>>> contour_model("img")
>>> contour_source("img", overcontour=True)
copy_data(fromid, toid)[source] [edit on github]

Copy a data set, creating a new identifier.

After copying the data set, any changes made to the original data set (that is, the fromid identifier) will not be reflected in the new (the toid identifier) data set.

Parameters
  • fromid (int or str) – The input data set.

  • toid (int or str) – The output data set.

Raises

sherpa.utils.err.IdentifierErr – If there is no data set with a fromid identifier.

Examples

>>> copy_data(1, 2)

Rename the data set with identifier 2 to “orig”, and then delete the old data set:

>>> copy_data(2, "orig")
>>> delete_data(2)
covar(*args)[source] [edit on github]

Estimate parameter confidence intervals using the covariance method.

The covar command computes confidence interval bounds for the specified model parameters in the dataset, using the covariance matrix of the statistic. The get_covar and set_covar_opt commands can be used to configure the error analysis; an example being changing the sigma field to 1.6 (i.e. 90%) from its default value of 1. The output from the routine is displayed on screen, and the get_covar_results routine can be used to retrieve the results.

Parameters
  • id (int or str, optional) – The data set, or sets, that provides the data. If not given then all data sets with an associated model are used simultaneously.

  • parameter (sherpa.models.parameter.Parameter, optional) – The default is to calculate the confidence limits on all thawed parameters of the model, or models, for all the data sets. The evaluation can be restricted by listing the parameters to use. Note that each parameter should be given as a separate argument, rather than as a list. For example covar(g1.ampl, g1.sigma).

  • model (sherpa.models.model.Model, optional) – Select all the thawed parameters in the model.

See also

covar

Estimate the confidence intervals using the confidence method.

get_covar

Return the covariance estimation object.

get_covar_results

Return the results of the last covar run.

int_proj

Plot the statistic value as a single parameter is varied.

int_unc

Plot the statistic value as a single parameter is varied.

reg_proj

Plot the statistic value as two parameters are varied.

reg_unc

Plot the statistic value as two parameters are varied.

set_covar_opt

Set an option of the covar estimation object.

Notes

The function does not follow the normal Python standards for parameter use, since it is designed for easy interactive use. When called with multiple ids or parameters values, the order is unimportant, since any argument that is not defined as a model parameter is assumed to be a data id.

The covar command is different to conf, in that in that all other thawed parameters are fixed, rather than being allowed to float to new best-fit values. While conf is more general (e.g. allowing the user to examine the parameter space away from the best-fit point), it is in the strictest sense no more accurate than covar for determining confidence intervals.

An estimated confidence interval is accurate if and only if:

  1. the chi^2 or logL surface in parameter space is approximately shaped like a multi-dimensional paraboloid, and

  2. the best-fit point is sufficiently far from parameter space boundaries.

One may determine if these conditions hold, for example, by plotting the fit statistic as a function of each parameter’s values (the curve should approximate a parabola) and by examining contour plots of the fit statistics made by varying the values of two parameters at a time (the contours should be elliptical, and parameter space boundaries should be no closer than approximately 3 sigma from the best-fit point). The int_proj and reg_proj commands may be used for this.

If either of the conditions given above does not hold, then the output from covar may be meaningless except to give an idea of the scale of the confidence intervals. To accurately determine the confidence intervals, one would have to reparameterize the model, use Monte Carlo simulations, or Bayesian methods.

As covar estimates intervals for each parameter independently, the relationship between sigma and the change in statistic value delta_S can be particularly simple: sigma = the square root of delta_S for statistics sampled from the chi-square distribution and for the Cash statistic, and is approximately equal to the square root of (2 * delta_S) for fits based on the general log-likelihood. The default setting is to calculate the one-sigma interval, which can be changed with the sigma option to set_covar_opt or get_covar.

Examples

Evaluate confidence intervals for all thawed parameters in all data sets with an associated source model. The results are then stored in the variable res.

>>> covar()
>>> res = get_covar_results()

Only evaluate the parameters associated with data set 2.

>>> covar(2)

Only evaluate the intervals for the pos.xpos and pos.ypos parameters:

>>> covar(pos.xpos, pos.ypos)

Change the limits to be 1.6 sigma (90%) rather than the default 1 sigma.

>>> set_covar_ope('sigma', 1.6)
>>> covar()

Only evaluate the clus.kt parameter for the data sets with identifiers “obs1”, “obs5”, and “obs6”. This will still use the 1.6 sigma setting from the previous run.

>>> covar("obs1", "obs5", "obs6", clus.kt)

Estimate the errors for all the thawed parameters from the line model and the clus.kt parameter for datasets 1, 3, and 4:

>>> covar(1, 3, 4, line, clus.kt)
covariance(*args) [edit on github]

Estimate parameter confidence intervals using the covariance method.

The covar command computes confidence interval bounds for the specified model parameters in the dataset, using the covariance matrix of the statistic. The get_covar and set_covar_opt commands can be used to configure the error analysis; an example being changing the sigma field to 1.6 (i.e. 90%) from its default value of 1. The output from the routine is displayed on screen, and the get_covar_results routine can be used to retrieve the results.

Parameters
  • id (int or str, optional) – The data set, or sets, that provides the data. If not given then all data sets with an associated model are used simultaneously.

  • parameter (sherpa.models.parameter.Parameter, optional) – The default is to calculate the confidence limits on all thawed parameters of the model, or models, for all the data sets. The evaluation can be restricted by listing the parameters to use. Note that each parameter should be given as a separate argument, rather than as a list. For example covar(g1.ampl, g1.sigma).

  • model (sherpa.models.model.Model, optional) – Select all the thawed parameters in the model.

See also

covar

Estimate the confidence intervals using the confidence method.

get_covar

Return the covariance estimation object.

get_covar_results

Return the results of the last covar run.

int_proj

Plot the statistic value as a single parameter is varied.

int_unc

Plot the statistic value as a single parameter is varied.

reg_proj

Plot the statistic value as two parameters are varied.

reg_unc

Plot the statistic value as two parameters are varied.

set_covar_opt

Set an option of the covar estimation object.

Notes

The function does not follow the normal Python standards for parameter use, since it is designed for easy interactive use. When called with multiple ids or parameters values, the order is unimportant, since any argument that is not defined as a model parameter is assumed to be a data id.

The covar command is different to conf, in that in that all other thawed parameters are fixed, rather than being allowed to float to new best-fit values. While conf is more general (e.g. allowing the user to examine the parameter space away from the best-fit point), it is in the strictest sense no more accurate than covar for determining confidence intervals.

An estimated confidence interval is accurate if and only if:

  1. the chi^2 or logL surface in parameter space is approximately shaped like a multi-dimensional paraboloid, and

  2. the best-fit point is sufficiently far from parameter space boundaries.

One may determine if these conditions hold, for example, by plotting the fit statistic as a function of each parameter’s values (the curve should approximate a parabola) and by examining contour plots of the fit statistics made by varying the values of two parameters at a time (the contours should be elliptical, and parameter space boundaries should be no closer than approximately 3 sigma from the best-fit point). The int_proj and reg_proj commands may be used for this.

If either of the conditions given above does not hold, then the output from covar may be meaningless except to give an idea of the scale of the confidence intervals. To accurately determine the confidence intervals, one would have to reparameterize the model, use Monte Carlo simulations, or Bayesian methods.

As covar estimates intervals for each parameter independently, the relationship between sigma and the change in statistic value delta_S can be particularly simple: sigma = the square root of delta_S for statistics sampled from the chi-square distribution and for the Cash statistic, and is approximately equal to the square root of (2 * delta_S) for fits based on the general log-likelihood. The default setting is to calculate the one-sigma interval, which can be changed with the sigma option to set_covar_opt or get_covar.

Examples

Evaluate confidence intervals for all thawed parameters in all data sets with an associated source model. The results are then stored in the variable res.

>>> covar()
>>> res = get_covar_results()

Only evaluate the parameters associated with data set 2.

>>> covar(2)

Only evaluate the intervals for the pos.xpos and pos.ypos parameters:

>>> covar(pos.xpos, pos.ypos)

Change the limits to be 1.6 sigma (90%) rather than the default 1 sigma.

>>> set_covar_ope('sigma', 1.6)
>>> covar()

Only evaluate the clus.kt parameter for the data sets with identifiers “obs1”, “obs5”, and “obs6”. This will still use the 1.6 sigma setting from the previous run.

>>> covar("obs1", "obs5", "obs6", clus.kt)

Estimate the errors for all the thawed parameters from the line model and the clus.kt parameter for datasets 1, 3, and 4:

>>> covar(1, 3, 4, line, clus.kt)
static create_arf(elo, ehi, specresp=None, exposure=None, ethresh=None, name='test-arf')[source] [edit on github]

Create an ARF.

New in version 4.10.1.

Parameters
  • elo (numpy.ndarray) – The energy bins (low and high, in keV) for the ARF. It is assumed that ehi_i > elo_i, elo_j > 0, the energy bins are either ascending - so elo_i+1 > elo_i - or descending (elo_i+1 < elo_i), and that there are no overlaps.

  • ehi (numpy.ndarray) – The energy bins (low and high, in keV) for the ARF. It is assumed that ehi_i > elo_i, elo_j > 0, the energy bins are either ascending - so elo_i+1 > elo_i - or descending (elo_i+1 < elo_i), and that there are no overlaps.

  • specresp (None or array, optional) – The spectral response (in cm^2) for the ARF. It is assumed to be >= 0. If not given a flat response of 1.0 is used.

  • exposure (number or None, optional) – If not None, the exposure of the ARF in seconds.

  • ethresh (number or None, optional) – Passed through to the DataARF call. It controls whether zero-energy bins are replaced.

  • name (str, optional) – The name of the ARF data set

Returns

arf

Return type

DataARF instance

Examples

Create a flat ARF, with a value of 1.0 cm^2 for each bin, over the energy range 0.1 to 10 keV, with a bin spacing of 0.01 keV.

>>> egrid = np.arange(0.1, 10, 0.01)
>>> arf = create_arf(egrid[:-1], egrid[1:])

Create an ARF that has 10 percent more area than the ARF from the default data set:

>>> arf1 = get_arf()
>>> elo = arf1.energ_lo
>>> ehi = arf1.energ_hi
>>> y = 1.1 * arf1.specresp
>>> arf2 = create_arf(elo, ehi, y, exposure=arf1.exposure)
create_model_component(typename=None, name=None)[source] [edit on github]

Create a model component.

Model components created by this function are set to their default values. Components can also be created directly using the syntax typename.name, such as in calls to set_model and set_source (unless you have called set_model_autoassign_func to change the default model auto-assignment setting).

Parameters
  • typename (str) – The name of the model. This should match an entry from the return value of list_models, and defines the type of model.

  • name (str) – The name used to refer to this instance, or component, of the model. A Python variable will be created with this name that can be used to inspect and change the model parameters, as well as use it in model expressions.

Returns

model

Return type

the sherpa.models.Model object created

See also

delete_model_component

Delete a model component.

get_model_component

Returns a model component given its name.

list_models

List the available model types.

list_model_components

List the names of all the model components.

set_model

Set the source model expression for a data set.

set_model_autoassign_func

Set the method used to create model component identifiers.

Notes

This function can over-write an existing component. If the over-written component is part of a source expression - as set by set_model - then the model evaluation will still use the old model definition (and be able to change the fit parameters), but direct access to its parameters is not possible since the name now refers to the new component (this is true using direct access, such as mname.parname, or with set_par).

Examples

Create an instance of the powlaw1d model called pl, and then freeze its gamma parameter to 2.6.

>>> create_model_component("powlaw1d", "pl")
>>> pl.gamma = 2.6
>>> freeze(pl.gamma)

Create a blackbody model called bb, check that it is reconized as a component, and display its parameters:

>>> create_model_component("bbody", "bb")
>>> list_model_components()
>>> print(bb)
>>> print(bb.ampl)
static create_rmf(rmflo, rmfhi, startchan=1, e_min=None, e_max=None, ethresh=None, fname=None, name='delta-rmf')[source] [edit on github]

Create an RMF.

If fname is set to None then this creats a “perfect” RMF, which has a delta-function response (so each channel uniquely maps to a single energy bin), otherwise the RMF is taken from the image data stored in the file pointed to by fname.

New in version 4.10.1.

Parameters
  • rmflo (array) – The energy bins (low and high, in keV) for the RMF. It is assumed that emfhi_i > rmflo_i, rmflo_j > 0, that the energy bins are either ascending, so rmflo_i+1 > rmflo_i or descending (rmflo_i+1 < rmflo_i), and that there are no overlaps. These correspond to the Elow and Ehigh columns (represented by the ENERG_LO and ENERG_HI columns of the MATRIX block) of the OGIP standard.

  • rmfhi (array) – The energy bins (low and high, in keV) for the RMF. It is assumed that emfhi_i > rmflo_i, rmflo_j > 0, that the energy bins are either ascending, so rmflo_i+1 > rmflo_i or descending (rmflo_i+1 < rmflo_i), and that there are no overlaps. These correspond to the Elow and Ehigh columns (represented by the ENERG_LO and ENERG_HI columns of the MATRIX block) of the OGIP standard.

  • startchan (int, optional) – The starting channel number: expected to be 0 or 1 but this is not enforced.

  • e_min (None or array, optional) – The E_MIN and E_MAX columns of the EBOUNDS block of the RMF.

  • e_max (None or array, optional) – The E_MIN and E_MAX columns of the EBOUNDS block of the RMF.

  • ethresh (number or None, optional) – Passed through to the DataRMF call. It controls whether zero-energy bins are replaced.

  • fname (None or str, optional) – If None then a “perfect” RMF is generated, otherwise it gives the name of the two-dimensional image file which stores the response information (the format of this file matches that created by the CIAO tool rmfimg).

  • name (str, optional) – The name of the RMF data set

Returns

rmf

Return type

DataRMF instance

dataspace1d(start, stop, step=1, numbins=None, id=None, bkg_id=None, dstype=<class 'sherpa.data.Data1DInt'>)[source] [edit on github]

Create the independent axis for a 1D data set.

Create an “empty” one-dimensional data set by defining the grid on which the points are defined (the independent axis). The values are set to 0.

Parameters
  • start (number) – The minimum value of the axis.

  • stop (number) – The maximum value of the axis.

  • step (number, optional) – The separation between each grid point. This is not used if numbins is set.

  • numbins (int, optional) – The number of grid points. This over-rides the step setting.

  • id (int or str, optional) – The identifier for the data set to use. If not given then the default identifier is used, as returned by get_default_id.

  • bkg_id (int or str, optional) – If set, the grid is for the background component of the data set.

  • dstype (data class to use, optional) – What type of data is to be used. Supported values include Data1DInt (the default), Data1D, and DataPHA.

See also

dataspace2d

Create the independent axis for a 2D data set.

get_dep

Return the dependent axis of a data set.

get_indep

Return the independent axes of a data set.

set_dep

Set the dependent axis of a data set.

Notes

The meaning of the stop parameter depends on whether it is a binned or unbinned data set (as set by the dstype parameter).

Examples

Create a binned data set, starting at 1 and with a bin-width of 1.

>>> dataspace1d(1, 5, 1)
>>> print(get_indep())
(array([ 1.,  2.,  3.,  4.]), array([ 2.,  3.,  4.,  5.]))

This time for an un-binned data set:

>>> dataspace1d(1, 5, 1, dstype=Data1D)
>>> print(get_indep())
(array([ 1.,  2.,  3.,  4.,  5.]),)

Specify the number of bins rather than the grid spacing:

>>> dataspace1d(1, 5, numbins=5, id=2)
>>> (xlo, xhi) = get_indep(2)
>>> xlo
array([ 1. ,  1.8,  2.6,  3.4,  4.2])
>>> xhi
array([ 1.8,  2.6,  3.4,  4.2,  5. ])
>>> dataspace1d(1, 5, numbins=5, id=3, dstype=Data1D)
>>> (x, ) = get_indep(3)
>>> x
array([ 1.,  2.,  3.,  4.,  5.])

Create a grid for a PHA data set called ‘jet’, and for its background component:

>>> dataspace1d(0.01, 11, 0.01, id='jet', dstype=DataPHA)
>>> dataspace1d(0.01, 11, 0.01, id='jet', bkg_id=1,
...             dstype=DataPHA)
dataspace2d(dims, id=None, dstype=<class 'sherpa.astro.data.DataIMG'>)[source] [edit on github]

Create the independent axis for a 2D data set.

Create an “empty” two-dimensional data set by defining the grid on which the points are defined (the independent axis). The values are set to 0.

Parameters
  • dims (sequence of 2 number) – The dimensions of the grid in (width,height) order.

  • id (int or str, optional) – The identifier for the data set to use. If not given then the default identifier is used, as returned by get_default_id.

  • dstype (data class to use, optional) – What type of data is to be used. Supported values include DataIMG (the default), Data2D, and Data2DInt.

See also

dataspace1d

Create the independent axis for a 1D data set.

get_dep

Return the dependent axis of a data set.

get_indep

Return the independent axes of a data set.

set_dep

Set the dependent axis of a data set.

Examples

Create a 200 pixel by 150 pixel grid (number of columns by number of rows) and display it (each pixel has a value of 0):

>>> dataspace2d([200, 150])
>>> image_data()

Create a data space called “fakeimg”:

>>> dataspace2d([nx, ny], id="fakeimg")
delete_bkg_model(id=None, bkg_id=None)[source] [edit on github]

Delete the background model expression for a data set.

This removes the model expression, created by set_bkg_model, for the background component of a data set. It does not delete the components of the expression, or remove the models for any other background components or the source of the data set.

Parameters
  • id (int or str, optional) – The data set containing the source expression. If not given then the default identifier is used, as returned by get_default_id.

  • bkg_id (int or string, optional) – The identifier for the background component to use.

See also

clean

Clear all stored session data.

delete_model

Delete the model expression for a data set.

get_default_id

Return the default data set identifier.

list_bkg_ids

List all the background identifiers for a data set.

set_model

Set the source model expression for a data set.

show_model

Display the source model expression for a data set.

Examples

Remove the background model expression for the default data set:

>>> delete_bkg_model()

Remove the model expression for the background component labelled ‘down’ for the data set with the identifier ‘src’:

>>> delete_bkg_model('src', 'down')
delete_data(id=None)[source] [edit on github]

Delete a data set by identifier.

The data set, and any associated structures - such as the ARF and RMF for PHA data sets - are removed.

Parameters

id (int or str, optional) – The data set to delete. If not given then the default identifier is used, as returned by get_default_id.

See also

clean

Clear all stored session data.

copy_data

Copy a data set to a new identifier.

delete_model

Delete the model expression from a data set.

get_default_id

Return the default data set identifier.

list_data_ids

List the identifiers for the loaded data sets.

Notes

The source expression is not removed by this function.

Examples

Delete the data from the default data set:

>>> delete_data()

Delete the data set identified as ‘src’:

>>> delete_data('src')
delete_model(id=None)[source] [edit on github]

Delete the model expression for a data set.

This removes the model expression, created by set_model, for a data set. It does not delete the components of the expression.

Parameters

id (int or str, optional) – The data set containing the source expression. If not given then the default identifier is used, as returned by get_default_id.

See also

clean

Clear all stored session data.

delete_data

Delete a data set by identifier.

get_default_id

Return the default data set identifier.

set_model

Set the source model expression for a data set.

show_model

Display the source model expression for a data set.

Examples

Remove the model expression for the default data set:

>>> delete_model()

Remove the model expression for the data set with the identifier called ‘src’:

>>> delete_model('src')
delete_model_component(name)[source] [edit on github]

Delete a model component.

Parameters

name (str) – The name used to refer to this instance, or component, of the model. The corresponding Python variable will be deleted by this function.

See also

create_model_component

Create a model component.

delete_model

Delete the model expression for a data set.

list_models

List the available model types.

list_model_components

List the names of all the model components.

set_model

Set the source model expression for a data set.

set_model_autoassign_func

Set the method used to create model component identifiers.

Notes

It is an error to try to delete a component that is part of a model expression - i.e. included as part of an expression in a set_model or set_source call. In such a situation, use the delete_model function to remove the source expression before calling delete_model_component.

Examples

If a model instance called pl has been created - e.g. by create_model_component('powlaw1d', 'pl') - then the following will remove it:

>>> delete_model_component('pl')
delete_pileup_model(id=None)[source] [edit on github]

Delete the pile up model for a data set.

Remove the pile up model applied to a source model.

New in version 4.12.2.

Parameters

id (int or str, optional) – The data set. If not given then the default identifier is used, as returned by get_default_id.

See also

get_pileup_model

Return the pile up model for a data set.

list_pileup_model_ids

List of all the data sets with a pile up model.

set_pileup_model

Add a pile up model to a data set.

Examples

>>> delete_pileup_model()
>>> delete_pileup_model('core')
delete_psf(id=None)[source] [edit on github]

Delete the PSF model for a data set.

Remove the PSF convolution applied to a source model.

Parameters

id (int or str, optional) – The data set. If not given then the default identifier is used, as returned by get_default_id.

See also

list_psf_ids

List of all the data sets with a PSF.

load_psf

Create a PSF model.

set_psf

Add a PSF model to a data set.

get_psf

Return the PSF model defined for a data set.

Examples

>>> delete_psf()
>>> delete_psf('core')
eqwidth(src, combo, id=None, lo=None, hi=None, bkg_id=None, error=False, params=None, otherids=(), niter=1000, covar_matrix=None)[source] [edit on github]

Calculate the equivalent width of an emission or absorption line.

The equivalent width is calculated in the selected units for the data set (which can be retrieved with get_analysis).

Changed in version 4.10.1: The error parameter was added which controls whether the return value is a scalar (the calculated equivalent width), when set to False, or the median value, error limits, and ancillary values.

Parameters
  • src – The continuum model (this may contain multiple components).

  • combo – The continuum plus line (absorption or emission) model.

  • lo (optional) – The lower limit for the calculation (the units are set by set_analysis for the data set). The default value (None) means that the lower range of the data set is used.

  • hi (optional) – The upper limit for the calculation (the units are set by set_analysis for the data set). The default value (None) means that the upper range of the data set is used.

  • id (int or string, optional) – The data set that provides the data. If not given then all data sets with an associated model are used simultaneously.

  • bkg_id (int or string, optional) – The identifier of the background component to use. This should only be set when the line to be measured is in the background model.

  • error (bool, optional) – The parameter indicates whether the errors are to be calculated or not. The default value is False

  • params (2D array, optional) – The default is None, in which case get_draws shall be called. The user can input the parameter array (e.g. from running sample_flux).

  • otherids (sequence of integer or strings, optional) – Other data sets to use in the calculation.

  • niter (int, optional) – The number of draws to use. The default is 1000.

  • covar_matrix (2D array, optional) – The covariance matrix to use. If None then the result from get_covar_results().extra_output is used.

Returns

If error is False, then returns the equivalent width, otherwise the median, 1 sigma lower bound, 1 sigma upper bound, the parameters array, and the array of the equivalent width values used to determine the errors.

Return type

retval

See also

calc_model_sum

Sum up the fitted model over a pass band.

calc_source_sum

Calculate the un-convolved model signal.

get_default_id

Return the default data set identifier.

set_model

Set the source model expression.

Examples

Set a source model (a powerlaw for the continuum and a gaussian for the line), fit it, and then evaluate the equivalent width of the line. The example assumes that this is a PHA data set, with an associated response, so that the analysis can be done in wavelength units.

>>> set_source(powlaw1d.cont + gauss1d.line)
>>> set_analysis('wavelength')
>>> fit()
>>> eqwidth(cont, cont+line)
2.1001988282497308

The calculation is restricted to the range 20 to 20 Angstroms.

>>> eqwidth(cont, cont+line, lo=20, hi=24)
1.9882824973082310

The calculation is done for the background model of data set 2, over the range 0.5 to 2 (the units of this are whatever the analysis setting for this data set id).

>>> set_bkg_source(2, const1d.flat + gauss1d.bline)
>>> eqwidth(flat, flat+bline, id=2, bkg_id=1, lo=0.5, hi=2)
0.45494599793003426

With the error flag set to True, the return value is enhanced with extra information, such as the median and one-sigma ranges on the equivalent width:

>>> res = eqwidth(p1, p1 + g1, error=True)
>>> ewidth = res[0]  # the median equivalent width
>>> errlo = res[1]   # the one-sigma lower limit
>>> errhi = res[2]   # the one-sigma upper limit
>>> pars = res[3]    # the parameter values used
>>> ews = res[4]     # array of eq. width values

which can be used to display the probability density or cumulative distribution function of the equivalent widths:

>>> plot_pdf(ews)
>>> plot_cdf(ews)
fake(id=None, method=<function poisson_noise>)[source] [edit on github]

Simulate a data set.

Take a data set, evaluate the model for each bin, and then use this value to create a data value from each bin. The default behavior is to use a Poisson distribution, with the model value as the expectation value of the distribution.

Parameters
  • id (int or str, optional) – The identifier for the data set to use. If not given then the default identifier is used, as returned by get_default_id.

  • method (func) – The function used to create a random realisation of a data set.

See also

dataspace1d

Create the independent axis for a 1D data set.

dataspace2d

Create the independent axis for a 2D data set.

get_dep

Return the dependent axis of a data set.

load_arrays

Create a data set from array values.

set_model

Set the source model expression for a data set.

Notes

The function for the method argument accepts a single argument, the data values, and should return an array of the same shape as the input, with the data values to use.

The function can be called on any data set, it does not need to have been created with dataspace1d or dataspace2d.

Specific data set types may have their own, specialized, version of this function.

Examples

Create a random realisation of the model - a constant plus gaussian line - for the range x=-5 to 5.

>>> dataspace1d(-5, 5, 0.5, dstype=Data1D)
>>> set_source(gauss1d.gline + const1d.bgnd)
>>> bgnd.c0 = 2
>>> gline.fwhm = 4
>>> gline.ampl = 5
>>> gline.pos = 1
>>> fake()
>>> plot_data()
>>> plot_model(overplot=True)

For a 2D data set, display the simulated data, model, and residuals:

>>> dataspace2d([150, 80], id='fakeimg')
>>> set_source('fakeimg', beta2d.src + polynom2d.bg)
>>> src.xpos, src.ypos = 75, 40
>>> src.r0, src.alpha = 15, 2.3
>>> src.ellip, src.theta = 0.4, 1.32
>>> src.ampl = 100
>>> bg.c, bg.cx1, bg.cy1 = 3, 0.4, 0.3
>>> fake('fakeimg')
>>> image_fit('fakeimg')
fake_pha(id, arf, rmf, exposure, backscal=None, areascal=None, grouping=None, grouped=False, quality=None, bkg=None)[source] [edit on github]

Simulate a PHA data set from a model.

The function creates a simulated PHA data set based on a source model, instrument response (given as an ARF and RMF), and exposure time, along with a Poisson noise term. A background component can be included.

Changed in version 4.15.0: The arf argument can now be set to None when the data uses a RSP file (combined RMF and ARF).

Parameters
  • id (int or str) – The identifier for the data set to create. If it already exists then it is assumed to contain a PHA data set and the counts will be over-written.

  • arf (None or filename or ARF object or list of filenames) – The name of the ARF, or an ARF data object (e.g. as returned by get_arf or unpack_arf). A list of filenames can be passed in for instruments that require multiple ARFs. Set this to None to use any arf that is already set for the data set given by id or for instruments that do not use an ARF separate from the RMF (e.g. XMM-Newton/RGS).

  • rmf (filename or RMF object or list of filenames) – The name of the RMF, or an RMF data object (e.g. as returned by get_rmf or unpack_rmf). A list of filenames can be passed in for instruments that require multiple RMFs. Set this to None to use any rmf that is already set for the data set given by id.

  • exposure (number) – The exposure time, in seconds.

  • backscal (number, optional) – The ‘BACKSCAL’ value for the data set.

  • areascal (number, optional) – The ‘AREASCAL’ value for the data set.

  • grouping (array, optional) – The grouping array for the data (see set_grouping).

  • grouped (bool, optional) – Should the simulated data be grouped (see group)? The default is False. This value is only used if the grouping parameter is set.

  • quality (array, optional) – The quality array for the data (see set_quality).

  • bkg (optional) – If left empty, then only the source emission is simulated. If set to a PHA data object, then the counts from this data set are scaled appropriately and added to the simulated source signal. To use background model, set bkg="model"`. In that case a background dataset with ``bkg_id=1 has to be set before calling fake_pha. That background dataset needs to include the data itself (not used in this function), the background model, and the response.

Raises

sherpa.utils.err.ArgumentErr – If the data set already exists and does not contain PHA data.

See also

fake

Simulate a data set.

get_arf

Return the ARF associated with a PHA data set.

get_rmf

Return the RMF associated with a PHA data set.

get_dep

Return the dependent axis of a data set.

load_arrays

Create a data set from array values.

set_model

Set the source model expression for a data set.

Notes

A model expression is created by using the supplied ARF and RMF to convolve the source expression for the dataset (the return value of get_source for the supplied id parameter). This expresion is evaluated for each channel to create the expectation values, which is then passed to a Poisson random number generator to determine the observed number of counts per channel. Any background component is scaled by appropriate terms (exposure time, area scaling, and the backscal value) before it is passed to a Poisson random number generator. The simulated background is added to the simulated data.

Examples

Estimate the signal from a 5000 second observation using the ARF and RMF from “src.arf” and “src.rmf” respectively:

>>> set_source(1, xsphabs.gal * xsapec.clus)
>>> gal.nh = 0.12
>>> clus.kt, clus.abundanc = 4.5, 0.3
>>> clus.redshift = 0.187
>>> clus.norm = 1.2e-3
>>> fake_pha(1, 'src.arf', 'src.rmf', 5000)

Simulate a 1 mega second observation for the data and model from the default data set. The simulated data will include an estimated background component based on scaling the existing background observations for the source. The simulated data set, which has the same grouping as the default set, for easier comparison, is created with the ‘sim’ label and then written out to the file ‘sim.pi’:

>>> arf = get_arf()
>>> rmf = get_rmf()
>>> bkg = get_bkg()
>>> bscal = get_backscal()
>>> grp = get_grouping()
>>> qual = get_quality()
>>> texp = 1e6
>>> set_source('sim', get_source())
>>> fake_pha('sim', arf, rmf, texp, backscal=bscal, bkg=bkg,
...          grouping=grp, quality=qual, grouped=True)
>>> save_pha('sim', 'sim.pi')

Sometimes, the background dataset is noisy because there are not enough photons in the background region. In this case, the background model can be used to generate the photons that the background contributes to the source spectrum. To do this, a background model must be passed in. This model is then convolved with the ARF and RMF (which must be set before) of the default background data set:

>>> set_bkg_source('sim', 'const1d.con1')
>>> load_arf('sim', 'bkg.arf.fits', bkg_id=1)
>>> load_rmf('sim', 'bkg_rmf.fits', bkg_id=1)
>>> fake_pha('sim', arf, rmf, texp, backscal=bscal, bkg='model',
...          grouping=grp, quality=qual, grouped=True)
>>> save_pha('sim', 'sim.pi')
fit(id=None, *otherids, **kwargs)[source] [edit on github]

Fit a model to one or more data sets.

Use forward fitting to find the best-fit model to one or more data sets, given the chosen statistic and optimization method. The fit proceeds until the results converge or the number of iterations exceeds the maximum value (these values can be changed with set_method_opt). An iterative scheme can be added using set_iter_method to try and improve the fit. The final fit results are displayed to the screen and can be retrieved with get_fit_results.

Parameters
  • id (int or str, optional) – The data set that provides the data. If not given then all data sets with an associated model are fit simultaneously.

  • *otherids (sequence of int or str, optional) – Other data sets to use in the calculation.

  • outfile (str, optional) – If set, then the fit results will be written to a file with this name. The file contains the per-iteration fit results.

  • clobber (bool, optional) – This flag controls whether an existing file can be overwritten (True) or if it raises an exception (False, the default setting).

Raises

sherpa.utils.err.FitErr – If filename already exists and clobber is False.

See also

conf

Estimate the confidence intervals using the confidence method.

contour_fit

Contour the fit to a data set.

covar

Estimate the confidence intervals using the confidence method.

fit_bkg

Fit a model to one or more background PHA data sets.

freeze

Fix model parameters so they are not changed by a fit.

get_fit_results

Return the results of the last fit.

plot_fit

Plot the fit results (data, model) for a data set.

image_fit

Display the data, model, and residuals for a data set in the image viewer.

set_stat

Set the statistical method.

set_method

Change the optimization method.

set_method_opt

Change an option of the current optimization method.

set_bkg_full_model

Define the convolved background model expression for a PHA data set.

set_bkg_model

Set the background model expression for a PHA data set.

set_full_model

Define the convolved model expression for a data set.

set_iter_method

Set the iterative-fitting scheme used in the fit.

set_model

Set the model expression for a data set.

show_fit

Summarize the fit results.

thaw

Allow model parameters to be varied during a fit.

Notes

For PHA data sets with background components, the function will fit any background components for which a background model has been created (rather than being subtracted). The fit_bkg function can be used to fit models to just the background data.

Examples

Simultaneously fit all data sets with models and then store the results in the variable fres:

>>> fit()
>>> fres = get_fit_results()

Fit just the data set ‘img’:

>>> fit('img')

Simultaneously fit data sets 1, 2, and 3:

>>> fit(1, 2, 3)

Fit data set ‘jet’ and write the fit results to the text file ‘jet.fit’, over-writing it if it already exists:

>>> fit('jet', outfile='jet.fit', clobber=True)
fit_bkg(id=None, *otherids, **kwargs)[source] [edit on github]

Fit a model to one or more background PHA data sets.

Fit only the backgound components of PHA data sets. This can be used to find the best-fit background parameters, which can then be frozen before fitting the data, or to ensure that these parameters are well defined before performing a simultaneous source and background fit.

Parameters
  • id (int or str, optional) – The data set that provides the background data. If not given then all data sets with an associated background model are fit simultaneously.

  • *otherids (sequence of int or str, optional) – Other data sets to use in the calculation.

  • outfile (str, optional) – If set, then the fit results will be written to a file with this name. The file contains the per-iteration fit results.

  • clobber (bool, optional) – This flag controls whether an existing file can be overwritten (True) or if it raises an exception (False, the default setting).

Raises

sherpa.utils.err.FitErr – If filename already exists and clobber is False.

See also

conf

Estimate the confidence intervals using the confidence method.

contour_fit

Contour the fit to a data set.

covar

Estimate the confidence intervals using the confidence method.

fit

Fit a model to one or more data sets.

freeze

Fix model parameters so they are not changed by a fit.

get_fit_results

Return the results of the last fit.

plot_fit

Plot the fit results (data, model) for a data set.

image_fit

Display the data, model, and residuals for a data set in the image viewer.

set_stat

Set the statistical method.

set_method

Change the optimization method.

set_method_opt

Change an option of the current optimization method.

set_bkg_full_model

Define the convolved background model expression for a PHA data set.

set_bkg_model

Set the background model expression for a PHA data set.

set_full_model

Define the convolved model expression for a data set.

set_iter_method

Set the iterative-fitting scheme used in the fit.

set_model

Set the model expression for a data set.

show_bkg_source

Display the background model expression for a data set.

show_bkg_model

Display the background model expression used to fit a data set.

show_fit

Summarize the fit results.

thaw

Allow model parameters to be varied during a fit.

Notes

This is only for PHA data sets where the background is being modelled, rather than subtracted from the data.

Examples

Simultaneously fit all background data sets with models and then store the results in the variable fres:

>>> fit_bkg()
>>> fres = get_fit_results()

Fit the background for data sets 1 and 2, then do a simultaneous fit to the source and background data sets:

>>> fit_bkg(1,2)
>>> fit(1,2)
freeze(*args)[source] [edit on github]

Fix model parameters so they are not changed by a fit.

The arguments can be parameters or models, in which case all parameters of the model are frozen. If no arguments are given then nothing is changed.

Parameters

args (sequence of str or Parameter or Model) – The parameters or models to freeze.

See also

fit

Fit one or more data sets.

link

Link a parameter value to an associated value.

set_par

Set the value, limits, or behavior of a model parameter.

thaw

Allow model parameters to be varied during a fit.

unlink

Unlink a parameter value.

Notes

The thaw function can be used to reverse this setting, so that parameters can be varied in a fit.

Examples

Fix the FWHM parameter of the line model (in this case a gauss1d model) so that it will not be varied in the fit.

>>> set_source(const1d.bgnd + gauss1d.line)
>>> line.fwhm = 2.1
>>> freeze(line.fwhm)
>>> fit()

Freeze all parameters of the line model and then re-fit:

>>> freeze(line)
>>> fit()

Freeze the nh parameter of the gal model and the abund parameter of the src model:

>>> freeze(gal.nh, src.abund)
get_analysis(id=None)[source] [edit on github]

Return the units used when fitting spectral data.

Parameters

id (int or str, optional) – The data set to query. If not given then the default identifier is used, as returned by get_default_id.

Returns

setting – The analysis setting for the data set.

Return type

{ ‘channel’, ‘energy’, ‘wavelength’ }

Raises

See also

get_default_id

Return the default data set identifier.

set_analysis

Change the analysis setting.

Examples

Display the analysis setting for the default data set:

>>> print(get_analysis())

Check whether the data set labelled ‘SgrA’ is using the wavelength setting:

>>> is_wave = get_analysis('SgrA') == 'wavelength'
get_areascal(id=None, bkg_id=None)[source] [edit on github]

Return the fractional area factor of a PHA data set.

Return the AREASCAL setting [1]_ for the source or background component of a PHA data set.

Parameters
  • id (int or str, optional) – The identifier for the data set to use. If not given then the default identifier is used, as returned by get_default_id.

  • bkg_id (int or str, optional) – Set to identify which background component to use. The default value (None) means that the value is for the source component of the data set.

Returns

areascal – The AREASCAL value, which can be a scalar or a 1D array.

Return type

number or ndarray

See also

get_backscal

Return the area scaling of a PHA data set.

set_areascal

Change the fractional area factor of a PHA data set.

Notes

The fractional area scale is normally set to 1, with the ARF used to scale the model.

References

1

“The OGIP Spectral File Format”, Arnaud, K. & George, I. http://heasarc.gsfc.nasa.gov/docs/heasarc/ofwg/docs/spectra/ogip_92_007/ogip_92_007.html

Examples

Return the AREASCAL value for the default data set:

>>> get_areascal()

Return the AREASCAL value for the first background component of dataset 2:

>>> get_areascal(id=2, bkg_id=1)
get_arf(id=None, resp_id=None, bkg_id=None)[source] [edit on github]

Return the ARF associated with a PHA data set.

Parameters
  • id (int or str, optional) – The data set to use. If not given then the default identifier is used, as returned by get_default_id.

  • resp_id (int or str, optional) – The identifier for the ARF within this data set, if there are multiple responses.

  • bkg_id (int or str, optional) – Set this to return the given background component.

Returns

arf – This is a reference to the ARF, rather than a copy, so that changing the fields of the object will change the values in the data set.

Return type

a sherpa.astro.instrument.ARF1D instance

See also

fake_pha

Simulate a PHA data set from a model.

get_response

Return the respone information applied to a PHA data set.

load_arf

Load an ARF from a file and add it to a PHA data set.

load_pha

Load a file as a PHA data set.

set_full_model

Define the convolved model expression for a data set.

set_arf

Set the ARF for use by a PHA data set.

set_rmf

Set the RMF for use by a PHA data set.

unpack_arf

Read in an ARF from a file.

Examples

Return the exposure field of the ARF from the default data set:

>>> get_arf().exposure

Copy the ARF from the default data set to data set 2:

>>> arf1 = get_arf()
>>> set_arf(2, arf1)

Retrieve the ARF associated to the second background component of the ‘core’ data set:

>>> bgarf = get_arf('core', 'bkg.arf', bkg_id=2)

Retrieve the ARF and RMF for the default data set and use them to create a model expression which includes a power-law component (pbgnd) that is not convolved by the response:

>>> arf = get_arf()
>>> rmf = get_rmf()
>>> src_expr = xsphabs.abs1 * powlaw1d.psrc
>>> set_full_model(rmf(arf(src_expr)) + powlaw1d.pbgnd)
>>> print(get_model())
get_arf_plot(id=None, resp_id=None, recalc=True)[source] [edit on github]

Return the data used by plot_arf.

Parameters
  • id (int or str, optional) – The data set with an ARF. If not given then the default identifier is used, as returned by get_default_id.

  • resp_id (int or str, optional) – Which ARF to use in the case that multiple ARFs are associated with a data set. The default is None, which means the first one.

  • recalc (bool, optional) – If False then the results from the last call to plot_arf (or get_arf_plot) are returned, otherwise the data is re-generated.

Returns

arf_plot

Return type

a sherpa.astro.plot.ARFPlot instance

Raises

sherpa.utils.err.ArgumentErr – If the data set does not contain PHA data.

See also

plot

Create one or more plot types.

plot_arf

Plot the ARF associated with a data set.

Examples

Return the ARF plot data for the default data set:

>>> aplot = get_arf_plot()
>>> aplot.y.max()
676.95794677734375

Return the ARF data for the second response of the data set labelled ‘histate’, and then plot it:

>>> aplot = get_arf_plot('histate', 2)
>>> aplot.plot()
get_axes(id=None, bkg_id=None)[source] [edit on github]

Return information about the independent axes of a data set.

This function returns the coordinates of each point, or pixel, in the data set. The get_indep function may be be preferred in some situations.

Parameters
  • id (int or str, optional) – The identifier for the data set to use. If not given then the default identifier is used, as returned by get_default_id.

  • bkg_id (int or str, optional) – Set if the values returned should be from the given background component, instead of the source data set.

Returns

axis – The independent axis values. The differences to get_dep that this represents the “alternate grid” for the axis. For PHA data, this is the energy grid (E_MIN and E_MAX). For image data it is an array for each axis, of the length of the axis, using the current coordinate system for the data set.

Return type

tuple of arrays

Raises

sherpa.utils.err.IdentifierErr – If the data set does not exist.

See also

get_indep

Return the independent axis of a data set.

list_data_ids

List the identifiers for the loaded data sets.

Examples

For 1D data sets, the “alternate” view is the same as the independent axis:

>>> load_arrays(1, [10, 15, 19], [4, 5, 9], Data1D)
>>> get_indep()
array([10, 15, 19])
>>> get_axes()
array([10, 15, 19])

For a PHA data set, the approximate energy grid of the channels is returned (this is determined by the EBOUNDS extension of the RMF).

>>> load_pha('core', 'src.pi')
read ARF file src.arf
read RMF file src.rmf
read background file src_bkg.pi
>>> (chans,) = get_indep()
>>> (elo, ehi) = get_axes()
>>> chans[0:5]
array([ 1.,  2.,  3.,  4.,  5.])
>>> elo[0:5]
array([ 0.0073,  0.0146,  0.0292,  0.0438,  0.0584])
>>> ehi[0:5]
array([ 0.0146,  0.0292,  0.0438,  0.0584,  0.073 ])

The image has 101 columns by 108 rows. The get_indep function returns one-dimensional arrays, for the full dataset, whereas get_axes returns values for the individual axis:

>>> load_image('img', 'img.fits')
>>> get_data('img').shape
(108, 101)
>>> set_coord('img', 'physical')
>>> (x0, x1) = get_indep('img')
>>> (a0, a1) = get_axes('img')
>>> (x0.size, x1.size)
(10908, 10908)
>>> (a0.size, a1.size)
(101, 108)
>>> np.all(x0[:101] == a0)
True
>>> np.all(x1[::101] == a1)
True
get_backscal(id=None, bkg_id=None)[source] [edit on github]

Return the BACKSCAL scaling of a PHA data set.

Return the BACKSCAL setting [1]_ for the source or background component of a PHA data set.

Parameters
  • id (int or str, optional) – The identifier for the data set to use. If not given then the default identifier is used, as returned by get_default_id.

  • bkg_id (int or str, optional) – Set to identify which background component to use. The default value (None) means that the value is for the source component of the data set.

Returns

backscal – The BACKSCAL value, which can be a scalar or a 1D array.

Return type

number or ndarray

See also

get_areascal

Return the fractional area factor of a PHA data set.

get_bkg_scale

Return the background scaling factor for a PHA data set.

set_backscal

Change the area scaling of a PHA data set.

Notes

The BACKSCAL value can be defined as the ratio of the area of the source (or background) extraction region in image pixels to the total number of image pixels. The fact that there is no ironclad definition for this quantity does not matter so long as the value for a source dataset and its associated background dataset are defined in the similar manner, because only the ratio of source and background BACKSCAL values is used. It can be a scalar or be an array.

References

1

“The OGIP Spectral File Format”, Arnaud, K. & George, I. http://heasarc.gsfc.nasa.gov/docs/heasarc/ofwg/docs/spectra/ogip_92_007/ogip_92_007.html

Examples

>>> get_backscal()
7.8504301607718007e-06
>>> get_backscal(bkg_id=1)
0.00022745132446289
get_bkg(id=None, bkg_id=None)[source] [edit on github]

Return the background for a PHA data set.

Function to return the background for a PHA data set. The object returned by the call can be used to query and change properties of the background.

Parameters
  • id (int or str, optional) – The data set. If not given then the default identifier is used, as returned by get_default_id.

  • bkg_id (int or str, optional) – The identifier for this background, which is needed if there are multiple background estimates for the source.

Returns

data

Return type

a sherpa.astro.data.DataPHA object

Raises

See also

get_data

Return the data set by identifier.

load_bkg

Load the backgreound from a file and add it to a PHA data set.

set_bkg

Set the background for a PHA data set.

Examples

>>> bg = get_bkg()
>>> bg = get_bkg('flare', 2)
get_bkg_arf(id=None)[source] [edit on github]

Return the background ARF associated with a PHA data set.

This is for the case when there is only one background component and one background response. If this does not hold, use get_arf and use the bkg_id and resp_id arguments.

Parameters

id (int or str, optional) – The data set to use. If not given then the default identifier is used, as returned by get_default_id.

Returns

arf – This is a reference to the ARF, rather than a copy, so that changing the fields of the object will change the values in the data set.

Return type

a sherpa.astro.instrument.ARF1D instance

See also

fake_pha

Simulate a PHA data set from a model.

load_bkg_arf

Load an ARF from a file and add it to the background of a PHA data set.

load_pha

Load a file as a PHA data set.

set_full_model

Define the convolved model expression for a data set.

set_arf

Set the ARF for use by a PHA data set.

set_rmf

Set the RMF for use by a PHA data set.

unpack_arf

Read in an ARF from a file.

Examples

Return the exposure field of the ARF from the background of the default data set:

>>> get_bkg_arf().exposure

Copy the ARF from the default data set to data set 2, as the first component:

>>> arf1 = get_bkg_arf()
>>> set_arf(2, arf1, bkg_id=1)
get_bkg_chisqr_plot(id=None, bkg_id=None, recalc=True)[source] [edit on github]

Return the data used by plot_bkg_chisqr.

Parameters
  • id (int or str, optional) – The data set that provides the data. If not given then the default identifier is used, as returned by get_default_id.

  • bkg_id (int or str, optional) – Identify the background component to use, if there are multiple ones associated with the data set.

  • recalc (bool, optional) – If False then the results from the last call to plot_bkg_chisqr (or get_bkg_chisqr_plot) are returned, otherwise the data is re-generated.

Returns

chisqr – An object representing the data used to create the plot by plot_bkg_chisqr.

Return type

a sherpa.astro.plot.BkgChisqrPlot instance

Raises

See also

get_bkg_delchi_plot

Return the data used by plot_bkg_delchi.

get_bkg_ratio_plot

Return the data used by plot_bkg_ratio.

get_bkg_resid_plot

Return the data used by plot_bkg_resid.

plot_bkg_chisqr

Plot the chi-squared value for each point of the background of a PHA data set.

Examples

>>> bplot = get_bkg_chisqr_plot()
>>> print(bplot)
>>> get_bkg_chisqr_plot('jet', bkg_id=1).plot()
>>> get_bkg_chisqr_plot('jet', bkg_id=2).overplot()
get_bkg_delchi_plot(id=None, bkg_id=None, recalc=True)[source] [edit on github]

Return the data used by plot_bkg_delchi.

Parameters
  • id (int or str, optional) – The data set that provides the data. If not given then the default identifier is used, as returned by get_default_id.

  • bkg_id (int or str, optional) – Identify the background component to use, if there are multiple ones associated with the data set.

  • recalc (bool, optional) – If False then the results from the last call to plot_bkg_delchi (or get_bkg_delchi_plot) are returned, otherwise the data is re-generated.

Returns

delchi – An object representing the data used to create the plot by plot_bkg_delchi.

Return type

a sherpa.astro.plot.BkgDelchiPlot instance

Raises

See also

get_bkg_chisqr_plot

Return the data used by plot_bkg_chisqr.

get_bkg_ratio_plot

Return the data used by plot_bkg_ratio.

get_bkg_resid_plot

Return the data used by plot_bkg_resid.

plot_bkg_delchi

Plot the ratio of residuals to error for the background of a PHA data set.

Examples

>>> bplot = get_bkg_delchi_plot()
>>> print(bplot)
>>> get_bkg_delchi_plot('jet', bkg_id=1).plot()
>>> get_bkg_delchi_plot('jet', bkg_id=2).overplot()
get_bkg_fit_plot(id=None, bkg_id=None, recalc=True)[source] [edit on github]

Return the data used by plot_bkg_fit.

Parameters
  • id (int or str, optional) – The data set that provides the data. If not given then the default identifier is used, as returned by get_default_id.

  • bkg_id (int or str, optional) – Identify the background component to use, if there are multiple ones associated with the data set.

  • recalc (bool, optional) – If False then the results from the last call to plot_bkg_fit (or get_bkg_fit_plot) are returned, otherwise the data is re-generated.

Returns

model – An object representing the data used to create the plot by plot_bkg_fit.

Return type

a sherpa.astro.plot.BkgFitPlot instance

Raises

See also

get_bkg_plot

Return the data used by plot_bkg.

get_bkg_model_plot

Return the data used by plot_bkg_model.

plot_bkg_fit

Plot the fit results (data, model) for the background of a PHA data set.

Examples

Create the data needed to create the “fit plot” for the background of the default data set and display it:

>>> bplot = get_bkg_fit_plot()
>>> print(bplot)

Return the plot data for data set 2, and then use it to create a plot:

>>> b2 = get_bkg_fit_plot(2)
>>> b2.plot()

The fit plot consists of a combination of a data plot and a model plot, which are captured in the dataplot and modelplot attributes of the return value. These can be used to display the plots individually, such as:

>>> b2.dataplot.plot()
>>> b2.modelplot.plot()

or, to combine the two:

>>> b2.dataplot.plot()
>>> b2.modelplot.overplot()

Return the plot data for the second background component to the “jet” data set:

>>> bplot = get_bkg_fit_plot('jet', bkg_id=2)
get_bkg_model(id=None, bkg_id=None)[source] [edit on github]

Return the model expression for the background of a PHA data set.

This returns the model expression for the background of a data set, including the instrument response (e.g. ARF and RMF), whether created automatically or explicitly, with set_bkg_full_model.

Parameters
  • id (int or str, optional) – The data set to use. If not given then the default identifier is used, as returned by get_default_id.

  • bkg_id (int or str, optional) – Identify the background component to use, if there are multiple ones associated with the data set.

Returns

This can contain multiple model components and any instrument response. Changing attributes of this model changes the model used by the data set.

Return type

instance

See also

delete_bkg_model

Delete the background model expression for a data set.

get_bkg_source

Return the model expression for the background of a PHA data set.

list_model_ids

List of all the data sets with a source expression.

set_bkg_model

Set the background model expression for a PHA data set.

set_bkg_full_model

Define the convolved background model expression for a PHA data set.

show_bkg_model

Display the background model expression for a data set.

Examples

Return the background model expression for the default data set, including any instrument response:

>>> bkg = get_bkg_model()
get_bkg_model_plot(id=None, bkg_id=None, recalc=True)[source] [edit on github]

Return the data used by plot_bkg_model.

Parameters
  • id (int or str, optional) – The data set that provides the data. If not given then the default identifier is used, as returned by get_default_id.

  • bkg_id (int or str, optional) – Identify the background component to use, if there are multiple ones associated with the data set.

  • recalc (bool, optional) – If False then the results from the last call to plot_bkg_model (or get_bkg_model_plot) are returned, otherwise the data is re-generated.

Returns

model – An object representing the data used to create the plot by plot_bkg_model.

Return type

a sherpa.astro.plot.BkgModelHistogram instance

Raises

See also

get_bkg_source_plot

Return the data used by plot_bkg_source.

plot_bkg_model

Plot the model for the background of a PHA data set.

plot_bkg_source

Plot the model expression for the background of a PHA data set.

Examples

>>> bplot = get_bkg_model_plot()
>>> print(bplot)
>>> get_bkg_model_plot('jet', bkg_id=1).plot()
>>> get_bkg_model_plot('jet', bkg_id=2).overplot()
get_bkg_plot(id=None, bkg_id=None, recalc=True)[source] [edit on github]

Return the data used by plot_bkg.

Parameters
  • id (int or str, optional) – The data set that provides the data. If not given then the default identifier is used, as returned by get_default_id.

  • bkg_id (int or str, optional) – Identify the background component to use, if there are multiple ones associated with the data set.

  • recalc (bool, optional) – If False then the results from the last call to plot_bkg (or get_bkg_plot) are returned, otherwise the data is re-generated.

Returns

data – An object representing the data used to create the plot by plot_data. The relationship between the returned values and the values in the data set depend on the analysis, filtering, and grouping settings of the data set.

Return type

a sherpa.astro.plot.BkgDataPlot instance

Raises

See also

get_default_id

Return the default data set identifier.

plot_bkg

Plot the background values for a PHA data set.

Examples

Create the data needed to create the “data plot” for the background of the default data set and display it:

>>> bplot = get_bkg_plot()
>>> print(bplot)

Return the plot data for data set 2, and then use it to create a plot:

>>> b2 = get_bkg_plot(2)
>>> b2.plot()

Return the plot data for the second background component to the “jet” data set:

>>> bplot = get_bkg_plot('jet', bkg_id=2)
get_bkg_ratio_plot(id=None, bkg_id=None, recalc=True)[source] [edit on github]

Return the data used by plot_bkg_ratio.

Parameters
  • id (int or str, optional) – The data set that provides the data. If not given then the default identifier is used, as returned by get_default_id.

  • bkg_id (int or str, optional) – Identify the background component to use, if there are multiple ones associated with the data set.

  • recalc (bool, optional) – If False then the results from the last call to plot_bkg_ratio (or get_bkg_ratio_plot) are returned, otherwise the data is re-generated.

Returns

ratio – An object representing the data used to create the plot by plot_bkg_ratio.

Return type

a sherpa.astro.plot.BkgRatioPlot instance

Raises

See also

get_bkg_chisqr_plot

Return the data used by plot_bkg_chisqr.

get_bkg_delchi_plot

Return the data used by plot_bkg_delchi.

get_bkg_resid_plot

Return the data used by plot_bkg_resid.

plot_bkg_ratio

Plot the ratio of data to model values for the background of a PHA data set.

Examples

>>> bplot = get_bkg_ratio_plot()
>>> print(bplot)
>>> get_bkg_ratio_plot('jet', bkg_id=1).plot()
>>> get_bkg_ratio_plot('jet', bkg_id=2).overplot()
get_bkg_resid_plot(id=None, bkg_id=None, recalc=True)[source] [edit on github]

Return the data used by plot_bkg_resid.

Parameters
  • id (int or str, optional) – The data set that provides the data. If not given then the default identifier is used, as returned by get_default_id.

  • bkg_id (int or str, optional) – Identify the background component to use, if there are multiple ones associated with the data set.

  • recalc (bool, optional) – If False then the results from the last call to plot_bkg_resid (or get_bkg_resid_plot) are returned, otherwise the data is re-generated.

Returns

resid – An object representing the data used to create the plot by plot_bkg_resid.

Return type

a sherpa.astro.plot.BkgResidPlot instance

Raises

See also

get_bkg_chisqr_plot

Return the data used by plot_bkg_chisqr.

get_bkg_delchi_plot

Return the data used by plot_bkg_delchi.

get_bkg_ratio_plot

Return the data used by plot_bkg_ratio.

plot_bkg_resid

Plot the residual (data-model) values for the background of a PHA data set.

Examples

>>> bplot = get_bkg_resid_plot()
>>> print(bplot)
>>> get_bkg_resid_plot('jet', bkg_id=1).plot()
>>> get_bkg_resid_plot('jet', bkg_id=2).overplot()
get_bkg_rmf(id=None)[source] [edit on github]

Return the background RMF associated with a PHA data set.

This is for the case when there is only one background component and one background response. If this does not hold, use get_rmf and use the bkg_id and resp_id arguments.

Parameters

id (int or str, optional) – The data set to use. If not given then the default identifier is used, as returned by get_default_id.

Returns

rmf – This is a reference to the RMF, rather than a copy, so that changing the fields of the object will change the values in the data set.

Return type

a sherpa.astro.instrument.RMF1D instance

See also

fake_pha

Simulate a PHA data set from a model.

load_bkg_rmf

Load a RMF from a file and add it to the background of a PHA data set.

load_pha

Load a file as a PHA data set.

set_full_model

Define the convolved model expression for a data set.

set_arf

Set the ARF for use by a PHA data set.

set_rmf

Set the RMF for use by a PHA data set.

unpack_rmf

Read in a RMF from a file.

Examples

Copy the RMF from the default data set to data set 2, as the first component:

>>> rmf1 = get_bkg_arf()
>>> set_rmf(2, arf1, bkg_id=1)
get_bkg_scale(id=None, bkg_id=1, units='counts', group=True, filter=False)[source] [edit on github]

Return the background scaling factor for a background data set.

Return the factor applied to the background component to scale it to match it to the source, either when subtracting the background (units=’counts’), or fitting it simultaneously (units=’rate’).

Changed in version 4.12.2: The bkg_id, counts, group, and filter parameters have been added and the routine no-longer calculates the average scaling for all the background components but just for the given component.

Parameters
  • id (int or str, optional) – The identifier for the data set to use. If not given then the default identifier is used, as returned by get_default_id.

  • bkg_id (int or str, optional) – Set to identify which background component to use. The default value is 1.

  • units ({'counts', 'rate'}, optional) – The correction is applied to a model defined as counts, the default, or a rate. The latter should be used when calculating the correction factor for adding the background data to the source aperture.

  • group (bool, optional) – Should the values be grouped to match the data?

  • filter (bool, optional) – Should the values be filtered to match the data?

Returns

ratio – The scaling factor. The result can vary per channel, in which case an array is returned.

Return type

number or array

See also

get_areascal

Return the fractional area factor of a PHA data set.

get_backscal

Return the area scaling factor for a PHA data set.

set_backscal

Change the area scaling of a PHA data set.

set_full_model

Define the convolved model expression for a data set.

set_bkg_full_model

Define the convolved background model expression for a PHA data set.

Notes

The scale factor when units=’counts’ is:

exp_src * bscale_src * areascal_src /
(exp_bgnd * bscale_bgnd * areascal_ngnd) /
nbkg

where exp_x, bscale_x. and areascal_x are the exposure, BACKSCAL, and AREASCAL values for the source (x=src) and background (x=bgnd) regions, respectively, and nbkg is the number of background datasets associated with the source aperture. When units=’rate’, the exposure and areascal corrections are not included.

Examples

Return the background-scaling factor for the default dataset (this assumes there’s only one background component).

>>> get_bkg_scale()
0.034514770047217924

Return the factor for dataset “pi”:

>>> get_bkg_scale('pi')
0.034514770047217924

Calculate the factors for the first two background components of the default dataset, valid for combining the source and background models to fit the source aperture:

>>> scale1 = get_bkg_scale(units='rate')
>>> scale2 = get_bkg_scale(units='rate', bkg_id=2)
get_bkg_source(id=None, bkg_id=None)[source] [edit on github]

Return the model expression for the background of a PHA data set.

This returns the model expression created by set_bkg_model or set_bkg_source. It does not include any instrument response.

Parameters
  • id (int or str, optional) – The data set to use. If not given then the default identifier is used, as returned by get_default_id.

  • bkg_id (int or str, optional) – Identify the background component to use, if there are multiple ones associated with the data set.

Returns

model – This can contain multiple model components. Changing attributes of this model changes the model used by the data set.

Return type

a sherpa.models.Model object

See also

delete_bkg_model

Delete the background model expression for a data set.

get_bkg_model

Return the model expression for the background of a PHA data set.

list_model_ids

List of all the data sets with a source expression.

set_bkg_model

Set the background model expression for a PHA data set.

show_bkg_model

Display the background model expression for a data set.

Examples

Return the background model expression for the default data set:

>>> bkg = get_bkg_source()
>>> len(bkg.pars)
2
get_bkg_source_plot(id=None, lo=None, hi=None, bkg_id=None, recalc=True)[source] [edit on github]

Return the data used by plot_bkg_source.

Parameters
  • id (int or str, optional) – The data set that provides the data. If not given then the default identifier is used, as returned by get_default_id.

  • lo (number, optional) – The low value to plot.

  • hi (number, optional) – The high value to plot.

  • bkg_id (int or str, optional) – Identify the background component to use, if there are multiple ones associated with the data set.

  • recalc (bool, optional) – If False then the results from the last call to plot_bkg_source (or get_bkg_source_plot) are returned, otherwise the data is re-generated.

Returns

source – An object representing the data used to create the plot by plot_bkg_source.

Return type

a sherpa.astro.plot.BkgSourcePlot instance

Raises

See also

get_bkg_model_plot

Return the data used by plot_bkg_model.

plot_bkg_model

Plot the model for the background of a PHA data set.

plot_bkg_source

Plot the model expression for the background of a PHA data set.

Examples

Retrieve the source plot information for the background of the default data set and display it:

>>> splot = get_bkg_source_plot()
>>> print(splot)

Return the background plot data for data set 2, and then use it to create a plot:

>>> s2 = get_bkg_source_plot(2)
>>> s2.plot()

Create a plot of the first two background components of the ‘histate’ data set, overplotting the second on the first:

>>> b1 = get_bkg_source_plot('histate', bkg_id=1)
>>> b2 = get_bkg_source_plot('histate', bkg_id=2)
>>> b1.plot()
>>> b2.overplot()

Retrieve the background source plots for the 0.5 to 7 range of the ‘jet’ and ‘core’ data sets and display them on the same plot:

>>> splot1 = get_bkg_source_plot(id='jet', lo=0.5, hi=7)
>>> splot2 = get_bkg_source_plot(id='core', lo=0.5, hi=7)
>>> splot1.plot()
>>> splot2.overplot()

For a PHA data set, the units on both the X and Y axes of the plot are controlled by the set_analysis command. In this case the Y axis will be in units of photons/s/cm^2 and the X axis in keV:

>>> set_analysis('energy', factor=1)
>>> splot = get_bkg_source_plot()
>>> print(splot)
get_cdf_plot()[source] [edit on github]

Return the data used to plot the last CDF.

Returns

plot – An object containing the data used by the last call to plot_cdf. The fields will be None if the function has not been called.

Return type

a sherpa.plot.CDFPlot instance

See also

plot_cdf

Plot the cumulative density function of an array.

get_chisqr_plot(id=None, recalc=True)[source] [edit on github]

Return the data used by plot_chisqr.

Parameters
  • id (int or str, optional) – The data set. If not given then the default identifier is used, as returned by get_default_id.

  • recalc (bool, optional) – If False then the results from the last call to plot_chisqr (or get_chisqr_plot) are returned, otherwise the data is re-generated.

Returns

resid_data

Return type

a sherpa.plot.ChisqrPlot instance

Raises

sherpa.utils.err.IdentifierErr – If the data set does not exist or a source expression has not been set.

See also

get_delchi_plot

Return the data used by plot_delchi.

get_ratio_plot

Return the data used by plot_ratio.

get_resid_plot

Return the data used by plot_resid.

plot_chisqr

Plot the chi-squared value for each point in a data set.

Examples

Return the residual data, measured as chi square, for the default data set:

>>> rplot = get_chisqr_plot()
>>> np.min(rplot.y)
0.0005140622701128954
>>> np.max(rplot.y)
8.379696454792295

Display the contents of the residuals plot for data set 2:

>>> print(get_chisqr_plot(2))

Overplot the residuals plot from the ‘core’ data set on the ‘jet’ data set:

>>> r1 = get_chisqr_plot('jet')
>>> r2 = get_chisqr_plot('core')
>>> r1.plot()
>>> r2.overplot()
get_conf()[source] [edit on github]

Return the confidence-interval estimation object.

Returns

conf

Return type

object

See also

conf

Estimate parameter confidence intervals using the confidence method.

get_conf_opt

Return one or all of the options for the confidence interval method.

set_conf_opt

Set an option of the conf estimation object.

Notes

The attributes of the confidence-interval object include:

eps

The precision of the calculated limits. The default is 0.01.

fast

If True then the fit optimization used may be changed from the current setting (only for the error analysis) to use a faster optimization method. The default is False.

max_rstat

If the reduced chi square is larger than this value, do not use (only used with chi-square statistics). The default is 3.

maxfits

The maximum number of re-fits allowed (that is, when the remin filter is met). The default is 5.

maxiters

The maximum number of iterations allowed when bracketing limits, before stopping for that parameter. The default is 200.

numcores

The number of computer cores to use when evaluating results in parallel. This is only used if parallel is True. The default is to use all cores.

openinterval

How the conf method should cope with intervals that do not converge (that is, when the maxiters limit has been reached). The default is False.

parallel

If there is more than one free parameter then the results can be evaluated in parallel, to reduce the time required. The default is True.

remin

The minimum difference in statistic value for a new fit location to be considered better than the current best fit (which starts out as the starting location of the fit at the time conf is called). The default is 0.01.

sigma

What is the error limit being calculated. The default is 1.

soft_limits

Should the search be restricted to the soft limits of the parameters (True), or can parameter values go out all the way to the hard limits if necessary (False). The default is False

tol

The tolerance for the fit. The default is 0.2.

verbose

Should extra information be displayed during fitting? The default is False.

Examples

>>> print(get_conf())
name         = confidence
numcores     = 8
verbose      = False
openinterval = False
max_rstat    = 3
maxiters     = 200
soft_limits  = False
eps          = 0.01
fast         = False
maxfits      = 5
remin        = 0.01
tol          = 0.2
sigma        = 1
parallel     = True

Change the remin field to 0.05.

>>> cf = get_conf()
>>> cf.remin = 0.05
get_conf_opt(name=None)[source] [edit on github]

Return one or all of the options for the confidence interval method.

This is a helper function since the options can also be read directly using the object returned by get_conf.

Parameters

name (str, optional) – If not given, a dictionary of all the options are returned. When given, the individual value is returned.

Returns

value

Return type

dictionary or value

Raises

sherpa.utils.err.ArgumentErr – If the name argument is not recognized.

See also

conf

Estimate parameter confidence intervals using the confidence method.

get_conf

Return the confidence-interval estimation object.

set_conf_opt

Set an option of the conf estimation object.

Examples

>>> get_conf_opt('verbose')
False
>>> copts = get_conf_opt()
>>> copts['verbose']
False
get_conf_results()[source] [edit on github]

Return the results of the last conf run.

Returns

results

Return type

sherpa.fit.ErrorEstResults object

Raises

sherpa.utils.err.SessionErr – If no conf call has been made.

See also

get_conf_opt

Return one or all of the options for the confidence interval method.

set_conf_opt

Set an option of the conf estimation object.

Notes

The fields of the object include:

datasets

A tuple of the data sets used in the analysis.

methodname

This will be ‘confidence’.

iterfitname

The name of the iterated-fit method used, if any.

fitname

The name of the optimization method used.

statname

The name of the fit statistic used.

sigma

The sigma value used to calculate the confidence intervals.

percent

The percentage of the signal contained within the confidence intervals (calculated from the sigma value assuming a normal distribution).

parnames

A tuple of the parameter names included in the analysis.

parvals

A tuple of the best-fit parameter values, in the same order as parnames.

parmins

A tuple of the lower error bounds, in the same order as parnames.

parmaxes

A tuple of the upper error bounds, in the same order as parnames.

nfits

The number of model evaluations.

Examples

>>> res = get_conf_results()
>>> print(res)
datasets    = (1,)
methodname  = confidence
iterfitname = none
fitname     = levmar
statname    = chi2gehrels
sigma       = 1
percent     = 68.2689492137
parnames    = ('p1.gamma', 'p1.ampl')
parvals     = (2.1585155113403327, 0.00022484014787994827)
parmins     = (-0.082785567348122591, -1.4825550342799376e-05)
parmaxes    = (0.083410634144100104, 1.4825550342799376e-05)
nfits       = 13

The following converts the above into a dictionary where the keys are the parameter names and the values are the tuple (best-fit value, lower-limit, upper-limit):

>>> pvals1 = zip(res.parvals, res.parmins, res.parmaxes)
>>> pvals2 = [(v, v+l, v+h) for (v, l, h) in pvals1]
>>> dres = dict(zip(res.parnames, pvals2))
>>> dres['p1.gamma']
(2.1585155113403327, 2.07572994399221, 2.241926145484433)
get_confidence_results() [edit on github]

Return the results of the last conf run.

Returns

results

Return type

sherpa.fit.ErrorEstResults object

Raises

sherpa.utils.err.SessionErr – If no conf call has been made.

See also

get_conf_opt

Return one or all of the options for the confidence interval method.

set_conf_opt

Set an option of the conf estimation object.

Notes

The fields of the object include:

datasets

A tuple of the data sets used in the analysis.

methodname

This will be ‘confidence’.

iterfitname

The name of the iterated-fit method used, if any.

fitname

The name of the optimization method used.

statname

The name of the fit statistic used.

sigma

The sigma value used to calculate the confidence intervals.

percent

The percentage of the signal contained within the confidence intervals (calculated from the sigma value assuming a normal distribution).

parnames

A tuple of the parameter names included in the analysis.

parvals

A tuple of the best-fit parameter values, in the same order as parnames.

parmins

A tuple of the lower error bounds, in the same order as parnames.

parmaxes

A tuple of the upper error bounds, in the same order as parnames.

nfits

The number of model evaluations.

Examples

>>> res = get_conf_results()
>>> print(res)
datasets    = (1,)
methodname  = confidence
iterfitname = none
fitname     = levmar
statname    = chi2gehrels
sigma       = 1
percent     = 68.2689492137
parnames    = ('p1.gamma', 'p1.ampl')
parvals     = (2.1585155113403327, 0.00022484014787994827)
parmins     = (-0.082785567348122591, -1.4825550342799376e-05)
parmaxes    = (0.083410634144100104, 1.4825550342799376e-05)
nfits       = 13

The following converts the above into a dictionary where the keys are the parameter names and the values are the tuple (best-fit value, lower-limit, upper-limit):

>>> pvals1 = zip(res.parvals, res.parmins, res.parmaxes)
>>> pvals2 = [(v, v+l, v+h) for (v, l, h) in pvals1]
>>> dres = dict(zip(res.parnames, pvals2))
>>> dres['p1.gamma']
(2.1585155113403327, 2.07572994399221, 2.241926145484433)
get_coord(id=None)[source] [edit on github]

Get the coordinate system used for image analysis.

Parameters

id (int or str, optional) – The data set to query. If not given then the default identifier is used, as returned by get_default_id.

Returns

coord

Return type

{ ‘logical’, ‘physical’, ‘world’ }

Raises

See also

get_default_id

Return the default data set identifier.

set_coord

Set the coordinate system to use for image analysis.

get_counts(id=None, filter=False, bkg_id=None) [edit on github]

Return the dependent axis of a data set.

This function returns the data values (the dependent axis) for each point or pixel in the data set.

Parameters
  • id (int or str, optional) – The identifier for the data set to use. If not given then the default identifier is used, as returned by get_default_id.

  • filter (bool, optional) – Should the filter attached to the data set be applied to the return value or not. The default is False.

  • bkg_id (int or str, optional) – Set if the values returned should be from the given background component, instead of the source data set.

Returns

axis – The dependent axis values. The model estimate is compared to these values during fitting. For PHA data sets, the return array will match the grouping scheme applied to the data set. This array is one-dimensional, even for two dimensional (e.g. image) data.

Return type

array

Raises

sherpa.utils.err.IdentifierErr – If the data set does not exist.

See also

get_error

Return the errors on the dependent axis of a data set.

get_indep

Return the independent axis of a data set.

get_rate

Return the count rate of a PHA data set.

list_data_ids

List the identifiers for the loaded data sets.

Examples

>>> load_arrays(1, [10, 15, 19], [4, 5, 9], Data1D)
>>> get_dep()
array([4, 5, 9])
>>> x0 = [10, 15, 12, 19]
>>> x1 = [12, 14, 10, 17]
>>> y = [4, 5, 9, -2]
>>> load_arrays(2, x0, x1, y, Data2D)
>>> get_dep(2)
array([4, 5, 9, -2])

If the filter flag is set then the return will be limited to the data that is used in the fit:

>>> load_arrays(1, [10, 15, 19], [4, 5, 9])
>>> ignore_id(1, 17, None)
>>> get_dep()
array([4, 5, 9])
>>> get_dep(filter=True)
array([4, 5])

An example with a PHA data set named ‘spec’:

>>> notice_id('spec', 0.5, 7)
>>> yall = get_dep('spec')
>>> yfilt = get_dep('spec', filter=True)
>>> yall.size
1024
>>> yfilt.size
446

For images, the data is returned as a one-dimensional array:

>>> load_image('img', 'image.fits')
>>> ivals = get_dep('img')
>>> ivals.shape
(65536,)
get_covar()[source] [edit on github]

Return the covariance estimation object.

Returns

covar

Return type

object

See also

covar

Estimate parameter confidence intervals using the covariance method.

get_covar_opt

Return one or all of the options for the covariance method.

set_covar_opt

Set an option of the covar estimation object.

Notes

The attributes of the covariance object include:

eps

The precision of the calculated limits. The default is 0.01.

maxiters

The maximum number of iterations allowed before stopping for that parameter. The default is 200.

sigma

What is the error limit being calculated. The default is 1.

soft_limits

Should the search be restricted to the soft limits of the parameters (True), or can parameter values go out all the way to the hard limits if necessary (False). The default is False

Examples

>>> print(get_covar())
name        = covariance
sigma       = 1
maxiters    = 200
soft_limits = False
eps         = 0.01

Change the sigma field to 1.9.

>>> cv = get_covar()
>>> cv.sigma = 1.6
get_covar_opt(name=None)[source] [edit on github]

Return one or all of the options for the covariance method.

This is a helper function since the options can also be read directly using the object returned by get_covar.

Parameters

name (str, optional) – If not given, a dictionary of all the options are returned. When given, the individual value is returned.

Returns

value

Return type

dictionary or value

Raises

sherpa.utils.err.ArgumentErr – If the name argument is not recognized.

See also

covar

Estimate parameter confidence intervals using the covariance method.

get_covar

Return the covariance estimation object.

set_covar_opt

Set an option of the covar estimation object.

Examples

>>> get_covar_opt('sigma')
1
>>> copts = get_covar_opt()
>>> copts['sigma']
1
get_covar_results()[source] [edit on github]

Return the results of the last covar run.

Returns

results

Return type

sherpa.fit.ErrorEstResults object

Raises

sherpa.utils.err.SessionErr – If no covar call has been made.

See also

get_covar_opt

Return one or all of the options for the covariance method.

set_covar_opt

Set an option of the covar estimation object.

Notes

The fields of the object include:

datasets

A tuple of the data sets used in the analysis.

methodname

This will be ‘covariance’.

iterfitname

The name of the iterated-fit method used, if any.

fitname

The name of the optimization method used.

statname

The name of the fit statistic used.

sigma

The sigma value used to calculate the confidence intervals.

percent

The percentage of the signal contained within the confidence intervals (calculated from the sigma value assuming a normal distribution).

parnames

A tuple of the parameter names included in the analysis.

parvals

A tuple of the best-fit parameter values, in the same order as parnames.

parmins

A tuple of the lower error bounds, in the same order as parnames.

parmaxes

A tuple of the upper error bounds, in the same order as parnames.

nfits

The number of model evaluations.

There is also an extra_output field which is used to return the covariance matrix.

Examples

>>> res = get_covar_results()
>>> print(res)
datasets    = (1,)
methodname  = covariance
iterfitname = none
fitname     = levmar
statname    = chi2gehrels
sigma       = 1
percent     = 68.2689492137
parnames    = ('bgnd.c0',)
parvals     = (10.228675427602724,)
parmins     = (-2.4896739438296795,)
parmaxes    = (2.4896739438296795,)
nfits       = 0

In this case, of a single parameter, the covariance matrix is just the variance of the parameter:

>>> res.extra_output
array([[ 6.19847635]])
get_covariance_results() [edit on github]

Return the results of the last covar run.

Returns

results

Return type

sherpa.fit.ErrorEstResults object

Raises

sherpa.utils.err.SessionErr – If no covar call has been made.

See also

get_covar_opt

Return one or all of the options for the covariance method.

set_covar_opt

Set an option of the covar estimation object.

Notes

The fields of the object include:

datasets

A tuple of the data sets used in the analysis.

methodname

This will be ‘covariance’.

iterfitname

The name of the iterated-fit method used, if any.

fitname

The name of the optimization method used.

statname

The name of the fit statistic used.

sigma

The sigma value used to calculate the confidence intervals.

percent

The percentage of the signal contained within the confidence intervals (calculated from the sigma value assuming a normal distribution).

parnames

A tuple of the parameter names included in the analysis.

parvals

A tuple of the best-fit parameter values, in the same order as parnames.

parmins

A tuple of the lower error bounds, in the same order as parnames.

parmaxes

A tuple of the upper error bounds, in the same order as parnames.

nfits

The number of model evaluations.

There is also an extra_output field which is used to return the covariance matrix.

Examples

>>> res = get_covar_results()
>>> print(res)
datasets    = (1,)
methodname  = covariance
iterfitname = none
fitname     = levmar
statname    = chi2gehrels
sigma       = 1
percent     = 68.2689492137
parnames    = ('bgnd.c0',)
parvals     = (10.228675427602724,)
parmins     = (-2.4896739438296795,)
parmaxes    = (2.4896739438296795,)
nfits       = 0

In this case, of a single parameter, the covariance matrix is just the variance of the parameter:

>>> res.extra_output
array([[ 6.19847635]])
get_data(id=None)[source] [edit on github]

Return the data set by identifier.

The object returned by the call can be used to query and change properties of the data set.

Parameters

id (int or str, optional) – The data set. If not given then the default identifier is used, as returned by get_default_id.

Returns

instance – The data instance.

Return type

sherpa.data.Data

Raises

sherpa.utils.err.IdentifierErr – No data has been loaded for this data set.

See also

copy_data

Copy a data set to a new identifier.

delete_data

Delete a data set by identifier.

load_data

Create a data set from a file.

set_data

Set a data set.

Examples

>>> d = get_data()
>>> dimg = get_data('img')
>>> load_arrays('tst', [10, 20, 30], [5.4, 2.3, 9.8])
>>> print(get_data('tst'))
name      =
x         = Int64[3]
y         = Float64[3]
staterror = None
syserror  = None
get_data_contour(id=None, recalc=True)[source] [edit on github]

Return the data used by contour_data.

Parameters
  • id (int or str, optional) – The data set. If not given then the default identifier is used, as returned by get_default_id.

  • recalc (bool, optional) – If False then the results from the last call to contour_data (or get_data_contour) are returned, otherwise the data is re-generated.

Returns

resid_data – The y attribute contains the residual values and the x0 and x1 arrays contain the corresponding coordinate values, as one-dimensional arrays.

Return type

a sherpa.plot.DataContour instance

Raises

See also

get_data_image

Return the data used by image_data.

contour_data

Contour the values of an image data set.

image_data

Display a data set in the image viewer.

Examples

Return the data for the default data set:

>>> dinfo = get_data_contour()
get_data_contour_prefs()[source] [edit on github]

Return the preferences for contour_data.

Returns

prefs – Changing the values of this dictionary will change any new contour plots. The default is an empty dictionary.

Return type

dict

See also

contour_data

Contour the values of an image data set.

Notes

The meaning of the fields depend on the chosen plot backend. A value of None (or not set) means to use the default value for that attribute, unless indicated otherwise.

alpha

The transparency value used to draw the contours, where 0 is fully transparent and 1 is fully opaque.

colors

The colors to draw the contours.

linewidths

What thickness of line to draw the contours.

xlog

Should the X axis be drawn with a logarithmic scale? The default is False.

ylog

Should the Y axis be drawn with a logarithmic scale? The default is False.

Examples

Change the contours to be drawn in ‘green’:

>>> contour_data()
>>> prefs = get_data_contour_prefs()
>>> prefs['color'] = 'green'
>>> contour_data()
get_data_image(id=None)[source] [edit on github]

Return the data used by image_data.

Parameters

id (int or str, optional) – The data set. If not given then the default identifier is used, as returned by get_default_id.

Returns

data_img – The y attribute contains the ratio values as a 2D NumPy array.

Return type

a sherpa.image.DataImage instance

Raises

See also

contour_data

Contour the values of an image data set.

image_data

Display a data set in the image viewer.

Examples

Return the image data for the default data set:

>>> dinfo = get_data_image()
>>> dinfo.y.shape
(150, 175)
get_data_plot(id=None, recalc=True)[source] [edit on github]

Return the data used by plot_data.

Parameters
  • id (int or str, optional) – The data set that provides the data. If not given then the default identifier is used, as returned by get_default_id.

  • recalc (bool, optional) – If False then the results from the last call to plot_data (or get_data_plot) are returned, otherwise the data is re-generated.

Returns

data – An object representing the data used to create the plot by plot_data. The relationship between the returned values and the values in the data set depend on the data type. For example PHA data are plotted in units controlled by sherpa.astro.ui.set_analysis, but are stored as channels and counts, and may have been grouped and the background estimate removed.

Return type

a sherpa.plot.DataPlot instance

See also

get_data_plot_prefs

Return the preferences for plot_data.

get_default_id

Return the default data set identifier.

plot_data

Plot the data values.

get_data_plot_prefs(id=None)[source] [edit on github]

Return the preferences for plot_data.

The plot preferences may depend on the data set, so it is now an optional argument.

Changed in version 4.12.2: The id argument has been given.

Parameters

id (int or str, optional) – The data set that provides the data. If not given then the default identifier is used, as returned by get_default_id.

Returns

prefs – Changing the values of this dictionary will change any new data plots. This dictionary will be empty if no plot backend is available.

Return type

dict

See also

plot_data

Plot the data values.

set_xlinear

New plots will display a linear X axis.

set_xlog

New plots will display a logarithmically-scaled X axis.

set_ylinear

New plots will display a linear Y axis.

set_ylog

New plots will display a logarithmically-scaled Y axis.

Notes

The meaning of the fields depend on the chosen plot backend. A value of None means to use the default value for that attribute, unless indicated otherwise. These preferences are used by the following commands: plot_data, plot_bkg, plot_ratio, and the “fit” variants, such as plot_fit, plot_fit_resid, and plot_bkg_fit.

The following preferences are recognized by the matplotlib backend:

alpha

The transparency value used to draw the line or symbol, where 0 is fully transparent and 1 is fully opaque.

barsabove

The barsabove argument for the matplotlib errorbar function.

capsize

The capsize argument for the matplotlib errorbar function.

color

The color to use (will be over-ridden by more-specific options below). The default is None.

ecolor

The color to draw error bars. The default is None.

linestyle

How should the line connecting the data points be drawn. The default is ‘None’, which means no line is drawn.

marker

What style is used for the symbols. The default is '.' which indicates a point.

markerfacecolor

What color to draw the symbol representing the data points. The default is None.

markersize

What size is the symbol drawn. The default is None.

ratioline

Should a horizontal line be drawn at y=1? The default is False.

xaxis

The default is False

xerrorbars

Should error bars be drawn for the X axis. The default is False.

xlog

Should the X axis be drawn with a logarithmic scale? The default is False. This field can also be changed with the set_xlog and set_xlinear functions.

yerrorbars

Should error bars be drawn for the Y axis. The default is True.

ylog

Should the Y axis be drawn with a logarithmic scale? The default is False. This field can also be changed with the set_ylog and set_ylinear functions.

Examples

After these commands, any data plot will use a green symbol and not display Y error bars.

>>> prefs = get_data_plot_prefs()
>>> prefs['color'] = 'green'
>>> prefs['yerrorbars'] = False
get_default_id()[source] [edit on github]

Return the default data set identifier.

The Sherpa data id ties data, model, fit, and plotting information into a data set easily referenced by id. The default identifier, used by many commands, is returned by this command and can be changed by set_default_id.

Returns

id – The default data set identifier used by certain Sherpa functions when an identifier is not given, or set to None.

Return type

int or str

See also

list_data_ids

List the identifiers for the loaded data sets.

set_default_id

Set the default data set identifier.

Notes

The default Sherpa data set identifier is the integer 1.

Examples

Display the default identifier:

>>> print(get_default_id())

Store the default identifier and use it as an argument to call another Sherpa routine:

>>> defid = get_default_id()
>>> load_arrays(defid, x, y)
get_delchi_plot(id=None, recalc=True)[source] [edit on github]

Return the data used by plot_delchi.

Parameters
  • id (int or str, optional) – The data set. If not given then the default identifier is used, as returned by get_default_id.

  • recalc (bool, optional) – If False then the results from the last call to plot_delchi (or get_delchi_plot) are returned, otherwise the data is re-generated.

Returns

resid_data

Return type

a sherpa.plot.DelchiPlot instance

Raises

sherpa.utils.err.IdentifierErr – If the data set does not exist or a source expression has not been set.

See also

get_chisqr_plot

Return the data used by plot_chisqr.

get_ratio_plot

Return the data used by plot_ratio.

get_resid_plot

Return the data used by plot_resid.

plot_delchi

Plot the ratio of residuals to error for a data set.

Examples

Return the residual data, measured in units of the error, for the default data set:

>>> rplot = get_delchi_plot()
>>> np.min(rplot.y)
-2.85648373819671875
>>> np.max(rplot.y)
2.89477053577520982

Display the contents of the residuals plot for data set 2:

>>> print(get_delchi_plot(2))

Overplot the residuals plot from the ‘core’ data set on the ‘jet’ data set:

>>> r1 = get_delchi_plot('jet')
>>> r2 = get_delchi_plot('core')
>>> r1.plot()
>>> r2.overplot()
get_dep(id=None, filter=False, bkg_id=None)[source] [edit on github]

Return the dependent axis of a data set.

This function returns the data values (the dependent axis) for each point or pixel in the data set.

Parameters
  • id (int or str, optional) – The identifier for the data set to use. If not given then the default identifier is used, as returned by get_default_id.

  • filter (bool, optional) – Should the filter attached to the data set be applied to the return value or not. The default is False.

  • bkg_id (int or str, optional) – Set if the values returned should be from the given background component, instead of the source data set.

Returns

axis – The dependent axis values. The model estimate is compared to these values during fitting. For PHA data sets, the return array will match the grouping scheme applied to the data set. This array is one-dimensional, even for two dimensional (e.g. image) data.

Return type

array

Raises

sherpa.utils.err.IdentifierErr – If the data set does not exist.

See also

get_error

Return the errors on the dependent axis of a data set.

get_indep

Return the independent axis of a data set.

get_rate

Return the count rate of a PHA data set.

list_data_ids

List the identifiers for the loaded data sets.

Examples

>>> load_arrays(1, [10, 15, 19], [4, 5, 9], Data1D)
>>> get_dep()
array([4, 5, 9])
>>> x0 = [10, 15, 12, 19]
>>> x1 = [12, 14, 10, 17]
>>> y = [4, 5, 9, -2]
>>> load_arrays(2, x0, x1, y, Data2D)
>>> get_dep(2)
array([4, 5, 9, -2])

If the filter flag is set then the return will be limited to the data that is used in the fit:

>>> load_arrays(1, [10, 15, 19], [4, 5, 9])
>>> ignore_id(1, 17, None)
>>> get_dep()
array([4, 5, 9])
>>> get_dep(filter=True)
array([4, 5])

An example with a PHA data set named ‘spec’:

>>> notice_id('spec', 0.5, 7)
>>> yall = get_dep('spec')
>>> yfilt = get_dep('spec', filter=True)
>>> yall.size
1024
>>> yfilt.size
446

For images, the data is returned as a one-dimensional array:

>>> load_image('img', 'image.fits')
>>> ivals = get_dep('img')
>>> ivals.shape
(65536,)
get_dims(id=None, filter=False)[source] [edit on github]

Return the dimensions of the data set.

Parameters
  • id (int or str, optional) – The data set. If not given then the default identifier is used, as returned by get_default_id.

  • filter (bool, optional) – If True then apply any filter to the data set before returning the dimensions. The default is False.

Returns

dims

Return type

a tuple of int

See also

ignore

Exclude data from the fit.

sherpa.astro.ui.ignore2d

Exclude a spatial region from an image.

notice

Include data in the fit.

sherpa.astro.ui.notice2d

Include a spatial region of an image.

Examples

Display the dimensions for the default data set:

>>> print(get_dims())

Find the number of bins in dataset ‘a2543’ without and with any filters applied to it:

>>> nall = get_dims('a2543')
>>> nfilt = get_dims('a2543', filter=True)
get_draws(id=None, otherids=(), niter=1000, covar_matrix=None)[source] [edit on github]

Run the pyBLoCXS MCMC algorithm.

The function runs a Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) algorithm designed to carry out Bayesian Low-Count X-ray Spectral (BLoCXS) analysis. It explores the model parameter space at the suspected statistic minimum (i.e. after using fit). The return values include the statistic value, parameter values, and an acceptance flag indicating whether the row represents a jump from the current location or not. For more information see the sherpa.sim module and [1]_.

Parameters
  • id (int or str, optional) – The data set that provides the data. If not given then all data sets with an associated model are used simultaneously.

  • otherids (sequence of int or str, optional) – Other data sets to use in the calculation.

  • niter (int, optional) – The number of draws to use. The default is 1000.

  • covar_matrix (2D array, optional) – The covariance matrix to use. If None then the result from get_covar_results().extra_output is used.

Returns

The results of the MCMC chain. The stats and accept arrays contain niter+1 elements, with the first row being the starting values. The params array has (nparams, niter+1) elements, where nparams is the number of free parameters in the model expression, and the first column contains the values that the chain starts at. The accept array contains boolean values, indicating whether the jump, or step, was accepted (True), so the parameter values and statistic change, or it wasn’t, in which case there is no change to the previous row. The sherpa.utils.get_error_estimates routine can be used to calculate the credible one-sigma interval from the params array.

Return type

stats, accept, params

See also

covar

Estimate the confidence intervals using the covariance method.

fit

Fit a model to one or more data sets.

plot_cdf

Plot the cumulative density function of an array.

plot_pdf

Plot the probability density function of an array.

plot_scatter

Create a scatter plot.

plot_trace

Create a trace plot of row number versus value.

set_prior

Set the prior function to use with a parameter.

set_sampler

Set the MCMC sampler.

get_sampler

Return information about the current MCMC sampler.

Notes

The chain is run using fit information associated with the specified data set, or sets, the currently set sampler (set_sampler) and parameter priors (set_prior), for a specified number of iterations. The model should have been fit to find the best-fit parameters, and covar called, before running get_draws. The results from get_draws is used to estimate the parameter distributions.

References

1

“Analysis of Energy Spectra with Low Photon Counts via Bayesian Posterior Simulation”, van Dyk, D.A., Connors, A., Kashyap, V.L., & Siemiginowska, A. 2001, Ap.J., 548, 224 http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2001ApJ…548..224V

Examples

Fit a source and then run a chain to investigate the parameter distributions. The distribution of the stats values created by the chain is then displayed, using plot_trace, and the parameter distributions for the first two thawed parameters are displayed. The first one as a cumulative distribution using plot_cdf and the second one as a probability distribution using plot_pdf. Finally the acceptance fraction (number of draws where the chain moved) is displayed. Note that in a full analysis session a burn-in period would normally be removed from the chain before using the results.

>>> fit()
>>> covar()
>>> stats, accept, params = get_draws(1, niter=1e4)
>>> plot_trace(stats, name='stat')
>>> names = [p.fullname for p in get_source().pars if not p.frozen]
>>> plot_cdf(params[0,:], name=names[0], xlabel=names[0])
>>> plot_pdf(params[1,:], name=names[1], xlabel=names[1])
>>> accept[:-1].sum() * 1.0 / len(accept - 1)
0.4287

The following runs the chain on multiple data sets, with identifiers ‘core’, ‘jet1’, and ‘jet2’:

>>> stats, accept, params = get_draws('core', ['jet1', 'jet2'], niter=1e4)
get_energy_flux_hist(lo=None, hi=None, id=None, num=7500, bins=75, correlated=False, numcores=None, bkg_id=None, scales=None, model=None, otherids=(), recalc=True, clip='hard')[source] [edit on github]

Return the data displayed by plot_energy_flux.

The get_energy_flux_hist() function calculates a histogram of simulated energy flux values representing the energy flux probability distribution for a model component, accounting for the errors on the model parameters.

Changed in version 4.12.2: The scales parameter is no longer ignored when set and the model and otherids parameters have been added. The clip argument has been added.

Parameters
  • lo (number, optional) – The lower limit to use when summing up the signal. If not given then the lower value of the data grid is used.

  • hi (optional) – The upper limit to use when summing up the signal. If not given then the upper value of the data grid is used.

  • id (int or string, optional) – The identifier of the data set to use. If None, the default value, then all datasets with associated models are used to calculate the errors and the model evaluation is done using the default dataset.

  • num (int, optional) – The number of samples to create. The default is 7500.

  • bins (int, optional) – The number of bins to use for the histogram.

  • correlated (bool, optional) – If True (the default is False) then scales is the full covariance matrix, otherwise it is just a 1D array containing the variances of the parameters (the diagonal elements of the covariance matrix).

  • numcores (optional) – The number of CPU cores to use. The default is to use all the cores on the machine.

  • bkg_id (int or string, optional) – The identifier of the background component to use. This should only be set when the line to be measured is in the background model.

  • scales (array, optional) – The scales used to define the normal distributions for the parameters. The size and shape of the array depends on the number of free parameters in the fit (n) and the value of the correlated parameter. When the parameter is True, scales must be given the covariance matrix for the free parameters (a n by n matrix that matches the parameter ordering used by Sherpa). For un-correlated parameters the covariance matrix can be used, or a one-dimensional array of n elements can be used, giving the width (specified as the sigma value of a normal distribution) for each parameter (e.g. the square root of the diagonal elements of the covariance matrix). If the scales parameter is not given then the covariance matrix is evaluated for the current model and best-fit parameters.

  • model (model, optional) – The model to integrate. If left as None then the source model for the dataset will be used. This can be used to calculate the unabsorbed flux, as shown in the examples. The model must be part of the source expression.

  • otherids (sequence of integer and string ids, optional) – The list of other datasets that should be included when calculating the errors to draw values from.

  • recalc (bool, optional) – If True, the default, then re-calculate the values rather than use the values from the last time the function was run.

  • clip ({'hard', 'soft', 'none'}, optional) – What clipping strategy should be applied to the sampled parameters. The default (‘hard’) is to fix values at their hard limits if they exceed them. A value of ‘soft’ uses the soft limits instead, and ‘none’ applies no clipping.

Returns

hist – An object representing the data used to create the plot by plot_energy_flux.

Return type

a sherpa.astro.plot.EnergyFluxHistogram instance

See also

get_photon_flux_hist

Return the data displayed by plot_photon_flux.

plot_energy_flux

Display the energy flux distribution.

plot_photon_flux

Display the photon flux distribution.

sample_energy_flux

Return the energy flux distribution of a model.

sample_flux

Return the flux distribution of a model.

sample_photon_flux

Return the photon flux distribution of a model.

Examples

Get the energy flux distribution for the range 0.5 to 7 for the default data set:

>>> ehist = get_energy_flux_hist(0.5, 7, num=1000)
>>> print(ehist)

Compare the 0.5 to 2 energy flux distribution from the “core” data set to the values from the “jet” data set:

>>> ehist1 = get_energy_flux_hist(0.5, 2, id='jet', num=1000)
>>> ehist2 = get_energy_flux_hist(0.5, 2, id='core', num=1000)

Compare the flux distribution for the full source expression (aflux) to that for just the pl component (uflux); this can be useful to calculate the unabsorbed flux distribution if the full source model contains an absorption component:

>>> aflux = get_energy_flux_hist(0.5, 2, num=1000, bins=20)
>>> uflux = get_energy_flux_hist(0.5, 2, model=pl, num=1000, bins=20)

When there are multiple datasets loaded, get_energy_flux_hist uses all datasets to evaluate the errors when the id parameter is left at its default value of None. The otherids parameter is used, along with id, to specify exactly what datasets are used:

>>> x = get_energy_flux_hist(2, 10, num=1000, bins=20, model=src)
>>> y = get_energy_flux_hist(2, 10, num=1000, bins=20, model=src,
...                          id=1, otherids=(2, 3, 4))
get_error(id=None, filter=False, bkg_id=None)[source] [edit on github]

Return the errors on the dependent axis of a data set.

The function returns the total errors (a quadrature addition of the statistical and systematic errors) on the values (dependent axis) of a data set or its background. The individual components can be retrieved with the get_staterror and get_syserror functions.

Parameters
  • id (int or str, optional) – The identifier for the data set to use. If not given then the default identifier is used, as returned by get_default_id.

  • filter (bool, optional) – Should the filter attached to the data set be applied to the return value or not. The default is False.

  • bkg_id (int or str, optional) – Set if the values returned should be from the given background component, instead of the source data set.

Returns

errors – The error for each data point, formed by adding the statistical and systematic errors in quadrature. For PHA data sets, the return array will match the grouping scheme applied to the data set. The size of this array depends on the filter argument.

Return type

array

Raises

sherpa.utils.err.IdentifierErr – If the data set does not exist.

See also

get_dep

Return the dependent axis of a data set.

get_staterror

Return the statistical errors on the dependent axis of a data set.

get_syserror

Return the systematic errors on the dependent axis of a data set.

list_data_ids

List the identifiers for the loaded data sets.

Notes

The default behavior is to not apply any filter defined on the independent axes to the results, so that the return value is for all points (or bins) in the data set. Set the filter argument to True to apply this filter.

Examples

Return the error values for the default data set, ignoring any filter applied to it:

>>> err = get_error()

Ensure that the return values are for the selected (filtered) points in the default data set (the return array may be smaller than in the previous example):

>>> err = get_error(filter=True)

Find the errors for the “core” data set and its two background components:

>>> err = get_error('core', filter=True)
>>> berr1 = get_error('core', bkg_id=1, filter=True)
>>> berr2 = get_error('core', bkg_id=2, filter=True)
get_exposure(id=None, bkg_id=None)[source] [edit on github]

Return the exposure time of a PHA data set.

The exposure time of a PHA data set is taken from the EXPTIME keyword in its header, but it can be changed once the file has been loaded.

Parameters
  • id (int or str, optional) – The identifier for the data set to use. If not given then the default identifier is used, as returned by get_default_id.

  • bkg_id (int or str, optional) – Set to identify which background component to use. The default value (None) means that the time is for the source component of the data set.

Returns

exposure – The exposure time, in seconds.

Return type

number

See also

get_areascal

Return the fractional area factor of a PHA data set.

get_backscal

Return the area scaling of a PHA data set.

set_exposure

Change the exposure time of a PHA data set.

Examples

Return the exposure time for the default data set.

>>> t = get_exposure()

Return the exposure time for the data set with identifier 2:

>>> t2 = get_exposure(2)

Return the exposure time for the first background component of data set “core”:

>>> tbkg = get_exposure('core', bkg_id=1)
get_filter(id=None)[source] [edit on github]

Return the filter expression for a data set.

This returns the filter expression, created by one or more calls to ignore and notice, for the data set.

Changed in version 4.14.0: The filter expressions have been tweaked for Data1DInt and PHA data sets (when using energy or wavelength units) and now describe the full range of the bins, rather than the mid-points.

Parameters

id (int or str, optional) – The identifier for the data set to use. If not given then the default identifier is used, as returned by get_default_id.

Returns

filter – The empty string or a string expression representing the filter used. For PHA data dets the units are controlled by the analysis setting for the data set.

Return type

str

Raises

sherpa.utils.err.ArgumentErr – If the data set does not exist.

See also

ignore

Exclude data from the fit.

load_filter

Load the filter array from a file and add to a data set.

notice

Include data in the fit.

save_filter

Save the filter array to a file.

show_filter

Show any filters applied to a data set.

set_filter

Set the filter array of a data set.

Examples

The default filter is the full dataset, given in the format lowval:hival (for a Data1D dataset like this these are inclusive limits):

>>> load_arrays(1, [10, 15, 20, 25], [5, 7, 4, 2])
>>> get_filter()
'10.0000:25.0000'

The notice call restricts the data to the range between 14 and 30. The resulting filter is the combination of this range and the data:

>>> notice(14, 30)
>>> get_filter()
'15.0000:25.0000'

Ignoring the point at x=20 means that only the points at x=15 and x=25 remain, so a comma-separated list is used:

>>> ignore(19, 22)
>>> get_filter()
'15.0000,25.0000'

The filter equivalent to the per-bin array of filter values:

>>> set_filter([1, 1, 0, 1])
>>> get_filter()
'10.0000:15.0000,25.0000'

For an integrated data set (Data1DInt and DataPHA with energy or wavelength units)

>>> load_arrays(1, [10, 15, 20, 25], [15, 20, 23, 30], [5, 7, 4, 2], Data1DInt)
>>> get_filter()
'10.0000:30.0000'

For integrated datasets the limits are now inclusive only for the lower limit, but in this the end-point ends within a bin so is is included:

>>> notice(17, 28)
>>> get_filter()
'15.0000:30.0000'

There is no data in the range 23 to 24 so the ignore doesn’t change anything:

>>> ignore(23, 24)
>>> get_filter()
'15.0000:30.0000'

However it does match the range 22 to 23 and so changes the filter:

>>> ignore(22, 23)
>>> get_filter()
'15.0000:20.0000,25:000:30.0000'

Return the filter for data set 3:

>>> get_filter(3)
get_fit_contour(id=None, recalc=True)[source] [edit on github]

Return the data used by contour_fit.

Parameters
  • id (int or str, optional) – The data set. If not given then the default identifier is used, as returned by get_default_id.

  • recalc (bool, optional) – If False then the results from the last call to contour_fit (or get_fit_contour) are returned, otherwise the data is re-generated.

Returns

fit_data – An object representing the data used to create the plot by contour_fit. It contains the data from get_data_contour and get_model_contour in the datacontour and modelcontour attributes.

Return type

a sherpa.plot.FitContour instance

Raises

See also

get_data_image

Return the data used by image_data.

get_model_image

Return the data used by image_model.

contour_data

Contour the values of an image data set.

contour_model

Contour the values of the model, including any PSF.

image_data

Display a data set in the image viewer.

image_model

Display the model for a data set in the image viewer.

Examples

Return the contour data for the default data set:

>>> finfo = get_fit_contour()
get_fit_plot(id=None, recalc=True)[source] [edit on github]

Return the data used to create the fit plot.

Parameters
  • id (int or str, optional) – The data set that provides the data. If not given then the default identifier is used, as returned by get_default_id.

  • recalc (bool, optional) – If False then the results from the last call to plot_fit (or get_fit_plot) are returned, otherwise the data is re-generated.

Returns

data – An object representing the data used to create the plot by plot_fit. It contains the data from get_data_plot and get_model_plot in the dataplot and modelplot attributes.

Return type

a sherpa.plot.FitPlot instance

See also

get_data_plot_prefs

Return the preferences for plot_data.

get_model_plot_prefs

Return the preferences for plot_model.

get_default_id

Return the default data set identifier.

plot_data

Plot the data values.

plot_model

Plot the model for a data set.

Examples

Create the data needed to create the “fit plot” for the default data set and display it:

>>> fplot = get_fit_plot()
>>> print(fplot)

Return the plot data for data set 2, and then use it to create a plot:

>>> f2 = get_fit_plot(2)
>>> f2.plot()

The fit plot consists of a combination of a data plot and a model plot, which are captured in the dataplot and modelplot attributes of the return value. These can be used to display the plots individually, such as:

>>> f2.dataplot.plot()
>>> f2.modelplot.plot()

or, to combine the two:

>>> f2.dataplot.plot()
>>> f2.modelplot.overplot()
get_fit_results()[source] [edit on github]

Return the results of the last fit.

This function returns the results from the most-recent fit. The returned value includes information on the parameter values and fit statistic.

Returns

stats – The results of the last fit. It does not reflect any changes made to the model parameter, or settings, since the last fit.

Return type

a sherpa.fit.FitResults instance

See also

calc_stat

Calculate the fit statistic for a data set.

calc_stat_info

Display the statistic values for the current models.

fit

Fit a model to one or more data sets.

get_stat_info

Return the statistic values for the current models.

set_iter_method

Set the iterative-fitting scheme used in the fit.

Notes

The fields of the object include:

datasets

A sequence of the data set ids included in the results.

itermethodname

What iterated-fit scheme was used, if any (as set by set_iter_method).

statname

The name of the statistic function (as used in set_stat).

succeeded

Was the fit successful (did it converge)?

parnames

A tuple of the parameter names that were varied in the fit (the thawed parameters in the model expression).

parvals

A tuple of the parameter values, in the same order as parnames.

statval

The statistic value after the fit.

istatval

The statistic value at the start of the fit.

dstatval

The change in the statistic value (istatval - statval).

numpoints

The number of bins used in the fits.

dof

The number of degrees of freedom in the fit (the number of bins minus the number of free parameters).

qval

The Q-value (probability) that one would observe the reduced statistic value, or a larger value, if the assumed model is true and the current model parameters are the true parameter values. This will be None if the value can not be calculated with the current statistic (e.g. the Cash statistic).

rstat

The reduced statistic value (the statval field divided by dof). This is not calculated for all statistics.

message

A message about the results of the fit (e.g. if the fit was unable to converge). The format and contents depend on the optimisation method.

nfev

The number of model evaluations made during the fit.

Examples

Display the fit results:

>>> print(get_fit_results())

Inspect the fit results:

>>> res = get_fit_results()
>>> res.statval
498.21750663761935
>>> res.dof
439
>>> res.parnames
('pl.gamma', 'pl.ampl', 'gline.fwhm', 'gline.pos', 'gline.ampl')
>>> res.parvals
(-0.20659543380329071, 0.00030398852609788524, 100.0, 4900.0, 0.001)
get_functions()[source] [edit on github]

Return the functions provided by Sherpa.

Returns

functions

Return type

list of str

See also

list_functions

Display the functions provided by Sherpa.

get_grouping(id=None, bkg_id=None)[source] [edit on github]

Return the grouping array for a PHA data set.

The function returns the grouping value for each channel in the PHA data set.

Parameters
  • id (int or str, optional) – The identifier for the data set to use. If not given then the default identifier is used, as returned by get_default_id.

  • bkg_id (int or str, optional) – Set if the grouping flags should be taken from a background associated with the data set.

Returns

grouping – A value of 1 indicates the start of a new group, and -1 indicates that the bin is part of the group. This array is not filtered - that is, there is one element for each channel in the PHA data set. Changes to the elements of this array will change the values in the dataset (it is a reference to the values used to define the quality, not a copy).

Return type

ndarray or None

Raises

sherpa.utils.err.ArgumentErr – If the data set does not contain a PHA data set.

See also

fit

Fit one or more data sets.

get_quality

Return the quality array for a PHA data set.

ignore_bad

Exclude channels marked as bad in a PHA data set.

load_grouping

Load the grouping scheme from a file and add to a PHA data set.

set_grouping

Apply a set of grouping flags to a PHA data set.

Notes

The meaning of the grouping column is taken from [1]_, which says that +1 indicates the start of a bin, -1 if the channel is part of group, and 0 if the data grouping is undefined for all channels.

References

1

“The OGIP Spectral File Format”, https://heasarc.gsfc.nasa.gov/docs/heasarc/ofwg/docs/spectra/ogip_92_007/ogip_92_007.html

Examples

Copy the grouping array from the default data set to data set 2:

>>> grp1 = get_grouping()
>>> set_grouping(2, grp1)

Return the grouping array of the background component labelled 2 for the ‘histate’ data set:

>>> grp = get_grouping('histate', bkg_id=2)
get_indep(id=None, filter=False, bkg_id=None)[source] [edit on github]

Return the independent axes of a data set.

This function returns the coordinates of each point, or pixel, in the data set. The get_axes function may be be preferred in some situations.

Parameters
  • id (int or str, optional) – The identifier for the data set to use. If not given then the default identifier is used, as returned by get_default_id.

  • filter (bool, optional) – Should the filter attached to the data set be applied to the return value or not. The default is False.

  • bkg_id (int or str, optional) – Set if the values returned should be from the given background component, instead of the source data set.

Returns

axis – The independent axis values. These are the values at which the model is evaluated during fitting. The values returned depend on the coordinate system in use for the data set (as set by set_coord). For PHA data sets the value returned is always in channels, whatever the set_analysis setting is, and does not follow any grouping setting for the data set.

Return type

tuple of arrays

Raises

sherpa.utils.err.IdentifierErr – If the data set does not exist.

See also

get_axes

Return information about the independent axes of a data set.

get_dep

Return the dependent axis of a data set.

list_data_ids

List the identifiers for the loaded data sets.

set_coord

Set the coordinate system to use for image analysis.

Notes

For a two-dimensional image, with size n by m pixels, the get_dep function will return two arrays, each of size n * m, which contain the coordinate of the center of each pixel. The get_axes function will instead return the coordinates of each axis separately, i.e. arrays of size n and m.

Examples

For a one-dimensional data set, the X values are returned:

>>> load_arrays(1, [10, 15, 19], [4, 5, 9], Data1D)
>>> get_indep()
(array([10, 15, 19]),)

For a 2D data set the X0 and X1 values are returned:

>>> x0 = [10, 15, 12, 19]
>>> x1 = [12, 14, 10, 17]
>>> y = [4, 5, 9, -2]
>>> load_arrays(2, x0, x1, y, Data2D)
>>> get_indep(2)
(array([10, 15, 12, 19]), array([12, 14, 10, 17]))

For PHA data sets the return value is in channel units:

>>> load_pha('spec', 'src.pi')
>>> set_analysis('spec', 'energy')
>>> (chans,) = get_indep('spec')
>>> chans[0:6]
array([ 1.,  2.,  3.,  4.,  5.,  6.])

If the filter flag is set then the return will be limited to the data that is used in the fit:

>>> notice_id('spec', 0.5, 7)
>>> (nchans,) = get_indep('spec', filter=True)
>>> nchans[0:5]
array([ 35.,  36.,  37.,  38.,  39.])

For images the pixel coordinates of each pixel are returned, as 1D arrays, one value for each pixel:

>>> load_image('img', 'image.fits')
>>> (xvals, yvals) = get_indep('img')
>>> xvals.shape
(65536,)
>>> yvals.shape
(65536,)
>>> xvals[0:5]
array([ 1.,  2.,  3.,  4.,  5.])
>>> yvals[0:5]
array([ 1.,  1.,  1.,  1.,  1.])

The coordinate system for image axes is determinated by the set_coord setting for the data set:

>>> set_coord('img', 'physical')
>>> (avals, bvals) = get_indep('img')
>>> avals[0:5]
array([  16.5,   48.5,   80.5,  112.5,  144.5])
get_int_proj(par=None, id=None, otherids=None, recalc=False, fast=True, min=None, max=None, nloop=20, delv=None, fac=1, log=False, numcores=None)[source] [edit on github]

Return the interval-projection object.

This returns (and optionally calculates) the data used to display the int_proj plot. Note that if the the recalc parameter is False (the default value) then all other parameters are ignored and the results of the last int_proj call are returned.

Parameters
  • par – The parameter to plot. This argument is only used if recalc is set to True.

  • id (str or int, optional) – The data set that provides the data. If not given then all data sets with an associated model are used simultaneously.

  • otherids (list of str or int, optional) – Other data sets to use in the calculation.

  • recalc (bool, optional) – The default value (False) means that the results from the last call to int_proj (or get_int_proj) are returned, ignoring all other parameter values. Otherwise, the statistic curve is re-calculated, but not plotted.

  • fast (bool, optional) – If True then the fit optimization used may be changed from the current setting (only for the error analysis) to use a faster optimization method. The default is False.

  • min (number, optional) – The minimum parameter value for the calculation. The default value of None means that the limit is calculated from the covariance, using the fac value.

  • max (number, optional) – The maximum parameter value for the calculation. The default value of None means that the limit is calculated from the covariance, using the fac value.

  • nloop (int, optional) – The number of steps to use. This is used when delv is set to None.

  • delv (number, optional) – The step size for the parameter. Setting this over-rides the nloop parameter. The default is None.

  • fac (number, optional) – When min or max is not given, multiply the covariance of the parameter by this value to calculate the limit (which is then added or subtracted to the parameter value, as required).

  • log (bool, optional) – Should the step size be logarithmically spaced? The default (False) is to use a linear grid.

  • numcores (optional) – The number of CPU cores to use. The default is to use all the cores on the machine.

Returns

iproj – The fields of this object can be used to re-create the plot created by int_proj.

Return type

a sherpa.plot.IntervalProjection instance

See also

conf

Estimate parameter confidence intervals using the confidence method.

covar

Estimate the confidence intervals using the covariance method.

int_proj

Calculate and plot the fit statistic versus fit parameter value.

int_unc

Calculate and plot the fit statistic versus fit parameter value.

reg_proj

Plot the statistic value as two parameters are varied.

Examples

Return the results of the int_proj run:

>>> int_proj(src.xpos)
>>> iproj = get_int_proj()
>>> min(iproj.y)
119.55942437129544

Since the recalc parameter has not been changed to True, the following will return the results for the last call to int_proj, which may not have been for the src.ypos parameter:

>>> iproj = get_int_proj(src.ypos)

Create the data without creating a plot:

>>> iproj = get_int_proj(pl.gamma, recalc=True)

Specify the range and step size for the parameter, in this case varying linearly between 12 and 14 with 51 values:

>>> iproj = get_int_proj(src.r0, id="src", min=12, max=14,
...                      nloop=51, recalc=True)
get_int_unc(par=None, id=None, otherids=None, recalc=False, min=None, max=None, nloop=20, delv=None, fac=1, log=False, numcores=None)[source] [edit on github]

Return the interval-uncertainty object.

This returns (and optionally calculates) the data used to display the int_unc plot. Note that if the the recalc parameter is False (the default value) then all other parameters are ignored and the results of the last int_unc call are returned.

Parameters
  • par – The parameter to plot. This argument is only used if recalc is set to True.

  • id (str or int, optional) – The data set that provides the data. If not given then all data sets with an associated model are used simultaneously.

  • otherids (list of str or int, optional) – Other data sets to use in the calculation.

  • recalc (bool, optional) – The default value (False) means that the results from the last call to int_proj (or get_int_proj) are returned, ignoring all other parameter values. Otherwise, the statistic curve is re-calculated, but not plotted.

  • min (number, optional) – The minimum parameter value for the calculation. The default value of None means that the limit is calculated from the covariance, using the fac value.

  • max (number, optional) – The maximum parameter value for the calculation. The default value of None means that the limit is calculated from the covariance, using the fac value.

  • nloop (int, optional) – The number of steps to use. This is used when delv is set to None.

  • delv (number, optional) – The step size for the parameter. Setting this over-rides the nloop parameter. The default is None.

  • fac (number, optional) – When min or max is not given, multiply the covariance of the parameter by this value to calculate the limit (which is then added or subtracted to the parameter value, as required).

  • log (bool, optional) – Should the step size be logarithmically spaced? The default (False) is to use a linear grid.

  • numcores (optional) – The number of CPU cores to use. The default is to use all the cores on the machine.

Returns

iunc – The fields of this object can be used to re-create the plot created by int_unc.

Return type

a sherpa.plot.IntervalUncertainty instance

See also

conf

Estimate parameter confidence intervals using the confidence method.

covar

Estimate the confidence intervals using the covariance method.

int_proj

Calculate and plot the fit statistic versus fit parameter value.

int_unc

Calculate and plot the fit statistic versus fit parameter value.

reg_proj

Plot the statistic value as two parameters are varied.

Examples

Return the results of the int_unc run:

>>> int_unc(src.xpos)
>>> iunc = get_int_unc()
>>> min(iunc.y)
119.55942437129544

Since the recalc parameter has not been changed to True, the following will return the results for the last call to int_unc, which may not have been for the src.ypos parameter:

>>> iunc = get_int_unc(src.ypos)

Create the data without creating a plot:

>>> iunc = get_int_unc(pl.gamma, recalc=True)

Specify the range and step size for the parameter, in this case varying linearly between 12 and 14 with 51 values:

>>> iunc = get_int_unc(src.r0, id="src", min=12, max=14,
...                    nloop=51, recalc=True)
get_iter_method_name()[source] [edit on github]

Return the name of the iterative fitting scheme.

Returns

name – The name of the iterative fitting scheme set by set_iter_method.

Return type

{‘none’, ‘sigmarej’}

See also

list_iter_methods

List the iterative fitting schemes.

set_iter_method

Set the iterative-fitting scheme used in the fit.

Examples

>>> print(get_iter_method_name())
get_iter_method_opt(optname=None)[source] [edit on github]

Return one or all options for the iterative-fitting scheme.

The options available for the iterative-fitting methods are described in set_iter_method_opt.

Parameters

optname (str, optional) – If not given, a dictionary of all the options are returned. When given, the individual value is returned.

Returns

value – The dictionary is empty when no iterative scheme is being used.

Return type

dictionary or value

Raises

sherpa.utils.err.ArgumentErr – If the optname argument is not recognized.

See also

get_iter_method_name

Return the name of the iterative fitting scheme.

set_iter_method_opt

Set an option for the iterative-fitting scheme.

set_iter_method

Set the iterative-fitting scheme used in the fit.

Examples

Display the settings of the current iterative-fitting method:

>>> print(get_iter_method_opt())

Switch to the sigmarej scheme and find out the current settings:

>>> set_iter_method('sigmarej')
>>> opts = get_iter_method_opt()

Return the ‘maxiters’ setting (if applicable):

>>> get_iter_method_opt('maxiters')
get_kernel_contour(id=None, recalc=True)[source] [edit on github]

Return the data used by contour_kernel.

Parameters
  • id (int or str, optional) – The data set. If not given then the default identifier is used, as returned by get_default_id.

  • recalc (bool, optional) – If False then the results from the last call to contour_kernel (or get_kernel_contour) are returned, otherwise the data is re-generated.

Returns

psf_data

Return type

a sherpa.plot.PSFKernelContour instance

Raises

See also

get_psf_contour

Return the data used by contour_psf.

contour_kernel

Contour the kernel applied to the model of an image data set.

contour_psf

Contour the PSF applied to the model of an image data set.

Examples

Return the contour data for the kernel for the default data set:

>>> kplot = get_kernel_contour()
get_kernel_image(id=None)[source] [edit on github]

Return the data used by image_kernel.

Parameters

id (int or str, optional) – The data set. If not given then the default identifier is used, as returned by get_default_id.

Returns

psf_data

Return type

a sherpa.image.PSFKernelImage instance

Raises

sherpa.utils.err.IdentifierErr – If a PSF model has not been created for the data set.

See also

get_psf_image

Return the data used by image_psf.

image_kernel

Display the 2D kernel for a data set in the image viewer.

image_psf

Display the 2D PSF model for a data set in the image viewer.

Examples

Return the image data for the kernel for the default data set:

>>> lplot = get_kernel_image()
>>> iplot.y.shape
(51, 51)
get_kernel_plot(id=None, recalc=True)[source] [edit on github]

Return the data used by plot_kernel.

Parameters
  • id (int or str, optional) – The data set. If not given then the default identifier is used, as returned by get_default_id.

  • recalc (bool, optional) – If False then the results from the last call to plot_kernel (or get_kernel_plot) are returned, otherwise the data is re-generated.

Returns

kernel_plot

Return type

a sherpa.plot.PSFKernelPlot instance

Raises

sherpa.utils.err.IdentifierErr – If a PSF model has not been created for the data set.

See also

get_psf_plot

Return the data used by plot_psf.

plot_kernel

Plot the 1D kernel applied to a data set.

plot_psf

Plot the 1D PSF model applied to a data set.

Examples

Return the plot data and then create a plot with it:

>>> kplot = get_kernel_plot()
>>> kplot.plot()
get_method(name=None)[source] [edit on github]

Return an optimization method.

Parameters

name (str, optional) – If not given, the current method is returned, otherwise it should be one of the names returned by the list_methods function.

Returns

method – An object representing the optimization method.

Return type

object

Raises

sherpa.utils.err.ArgumentErr – If the name argument is not recognized.

See also

get_method_opt

Get the options for the current optimization method.

list_methods

List the supported optimization methods.

set_method

Change the optimization method.

set_method_opt

Change an option of the current optimization method.

Examples

The fields of the object returned by get_method can be used to view or change the method options.

>>> method = ui.get_method()
>>> print(method.name)
levmar
>>> print(method)
name    = levmar
ftol    = 1.19209289551e-07
xtol    = 1.19209289551e-07
gtol    = 1.19209289551e-07
maxfev  = None
epsfcn  = 1.19209289551e-07
factor  = 100.0
verbose = 0
>>> method.maxfev = 5000
get_method_name()[source] [edit on github]

Return the name of current Sherpa optimization method.

Returns

name – The name of the current optimization method, in lower case. This may not match the value sent to set_method because some methods can be set by multiple names.

Return type

str

See also

get_method

Return an optimization method.

get_method_opt

Get the options for the current optimization method.

Examples

>>> get_method_name()
'levmar'

The ‘neldermead’ method can also be referred to as ‘simplex’:

>>> set_method('simplex')
>>> get_method_name()
'neldermead'
get_method_opt(optname=None)[source] [edit on github]

Return one or all of the options for the current optimization method.

This is a helper function since the optimization options can also be read directly using the object returned by get_method.

Parameters

optname (str, optional) – If not given, a dictionary of all the options are returned. When given, the individual value is returned.

Returns

value

Return type

dictionary or value

Raises

sherpa.utils.err.ArgumentErr – If the optname argument is not recognized.

See also

get_method

Return an optimization method.

set_method

Change the optimization method.

set_method_opt

Change an option of the current optimization method.

Examples

>>> get_method_opt('maxfev') is None
True
>>> mopts = get_method_opt()
>>> mopts['maxfev'] is None
True
get_model(id=None)[source] [edit on github]

Return the model expression for a data set.

This returns the model expression for a data set, including any instrument response (e.g. PSF or ARF and RMF) whether created automatically or explicitly, with set_full_model.

Parameters

id (int or str, optional) – The data set containing the source expression. If not given then the default identifier is used, as returned by get_default_id.

Returns

This can contain multiple model components and any instrument response. Changing attributes of this model changes the model used by the data set.

Return type

instance

See also

delete_model

Delete the model expression from a data set.

get_model_pars

Return the names of the parameters of a model.

get_model_type

Describe a model expression.

get_source

Return the source model expression for a data set.

list_model_ids

List of all the data sets with a source expression.

sherpa.astro.ui.set_bkg_model

Set the background model expression for a data set.

set_model

Set the source model expression for a data set.

set_full_model

Define the convolved model expression for a data set.

show_model

Display the source model expression for a data set.

Examples

Return the model fitted to the default data set:

>>> mdl = get_model()
>>> len(mdl.pars)
5
get_model_autoassign_func()