Source code for sherpa.plot.backends

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#  Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory
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from copy import deepcopy
from inspect import signature
import logging
import types

from sherpa.utils import formatting
from sherpa.plot.backend_utils import (translate_args,
                                       add_kwargs_to_doc,
                                       get_keyword_defaults)

__all__ = ('BasicBackend',
           'backend_indep_kwargs',
           'IndepOnlyBackend',
           'PLOT_BACKENDS',
           )

PLOT_BACKENDS = {}
'''global list of all successfully imported plotting backends'''

lgr = logging.getLogger(__name__)
warning = lgr.warning

backend_indep_colors = list('rgbkwcym') + [None]
'''List of colors that are allowed in all backends'''

backend_indep_kwargs = {
    'color': backend_indep_colors,
    'ecolor': backend_indep_colors,
    'markerfacecolor': backend_indep_colors,
    'linestyle': [None, 'noline', 'solid', 'dot', 'dash', 'dashdot', '-', ':', '--',
                  '-.', '', "None"],
    'marker': [None, '', "None", ".", "o", "+", "s"]
}
'''List of keyword argument and possible values allowed in all backends'''


kwargs_doc = {'xerr': ['float or array-like, shape(N,) or shape(2, N)',
                       '''The errorbar sizes can be:
  - scalar: Symmetric +/- values for all data points.
  - shape(N,): Symmetric +/-values for each data point.
  - shape(2, N): Separate - and + values for each bar. First row
    contains the lower errors, the second row contains the upper
    errors.
  - None: No errorbar.

Note that all error arrays should have positive values.'''],
              'yerr': ['float or array-like, shape(N,) or shape(2, N)',
                       '''The errorbar sizes can be:
  - scalar: Symmetric +/- values for all data points.
  - shape(N,): Symmetric +/-values for each data point.
  - shape(2, N): Separate - and + values for each bar. First row
    contains the lower errors, the second row contains the upper
    errors.
  - None: No errorbar.

Note that all error arrays should have positive values.'''],
              'title': ['str',
                        'Plot title (can contain LaTeX formulas). Only used if a new plot is created.'],
              'xlabel': ['str',
                         'Axis label (can contain LaTeX formulas). Only used if a new plot is created.'],
              'ylabel': ['string',
                         'Axis label (can contain LaTeX formulas). Only used if a new plot is created.'],
              'xlog': ['bool',
                       'Should the x axis be logarithmic (default: linear)? Only used if a new plot is created.'],
              'ylog': ['bool',
                       'Should the y axis be logarithmic (default: linear)? Only used if a new plot is created.'],
              'overplot': ['bool',
                           'If `True`, the plot is added to an existing plot, if not a new plot is created.'],
              'clearwindow': ['bool',
                              'If `True` the entire figure area is cleared to make space for a new plot.'],
              'xerrorbars': ['bool',
                             '''Should x error bars be shown? If this is set to `True` errorbars
are shown, but only if the size of the errorbars is provided in the
`xerr` parameters. The purpose of having a separate switch
`xerrorbars` is that the prepare method of a plot can create the
errors and pass them to this method, but the user can still decide
to change the style of the plot and choose if error bars should be
displayed.'''],
              'yerrorbars': ['bool',
                             '''Should y error bars be shown? If this is set to `True` errorbars
are shown, but only if the size of the errorbars is provided in the
`yerr` parameters. The purpose of having a separate switch
`yerrorbars` is that the prepare method of a plot can create the
errors and pass them to this method, but the user can still decide
to change the style of the plot and choose if error bars should be
displayed.'''],
              'color': ['str',
                        '''The following colors are accepted by all backends: ``'b'`` (blue),
``'r'`` (red), ``'g'`` (green), ``'k'`` (black), ``'w'`` (white),
``'c'`` (cyan), ``'y'`` (yellow), ``'m'`` (magenta) but they may not
translate to the exact same RGB values in each backend, e.g. ``'b'``
could be a different shade of blue depending on the backend.
Some backends might accept additional values.'''],
              'linestyle': ['str',
                            '''The following values are accepted by all backends: ``'noline'``,
``'None'`` (as string, same as ``'noline'``),
``'solid'``, ``'dot'``, ``'dash'``, ``'dashdot'``, ``'-'`` (solid
line), ``':'`` (dotted), ``'--'`` (dashed), ``'-.'`` (dot-dashed),
``''`` (empty string, no line shown), `None` (default - usually
solid line).
Some backends may accept additional values.'''],
              'linewidth': ['float', 'Thickness of the line.'],
              'linecolor': ['str',
                            '''The following colors are accepted by all backends: ``'b'`` (blue),
``'r'`` (red), ``'g'`` (green), ``'k'`` (black), ``'w'`` (white),
``'c'`` (cyan), ``'y'`` (yellow), ``'m'`` (magenta) but they may not
translate to the exact same RGB values in each backend, e.g. ``'b'``
could be a different shade of blue depending on the backend.
Some backend might accept additional values.'''],
              'marker': ['str',
                         '''The following values are accepted by all backends: "None" (as a
string, no marker shown), "." (dot), "o" (circle), "+", "s" (square),
"" (empty string, no marker shown), `None` (no marker shown).

Some backends may accept additional values.'''],
              'alpha': ['float', 'Number between 0 and 1, setting the transparency.'],
              'markerfacecolor': ['string', 'see `color`'],
              'markersize': ['float',
                             '''Size of a marker. The scale may also depend on the backend. `None`
uses the backend-specific default.'''],
              'ecolor': ['str', 'Color of the error bars.'],
              'capsize': ['float', 'Size of the cap drawn at the end of the error bars.'],
              'levels': ['array-like', 'Levels at which to draw the contours'],
              'aspect': ['str or float', 'Aspect ratio of the plot. Strings "equal" or "auto" are accepted.'],
              'label': ['str', 'Label this dataset for use in a legend'],
              'levels': ['array-like', 'Levels at which to draw the contours'],
              'ymin' : ['float', '''Beginning of the vertical line in axes coordinates,
i.e. from 0 (bottom) to 1 (top).'''],
              'ymax' : ['float', '''End of the vertical line in axes coordinates,
i.e. from 0 (bottom) to 1 (top).'''],
              'xmin' : ['float', '''Beginning of the horizontal line in axes coordinates,
i.e. from 0 (left) to 1 (right).'''],
              'xmax' : ['float', '''End of the vertical line in axes coordinates,
i.e. from 0 (left) to 1 (right).'''],
              }
'''Documentation for keyword arguments used by several functions

These can be inserted into the docstrings automatically using the
`sherpa.plot.backend_utils.add_kwargs_to_doc` decorator.
'''


[docs] class MetaBaseBackend(type): '''Metaclass to operate a registry of backends When any class that uses this metaclass is defined (i.e. the module is imported) then the class is added to the global `sherpa.plot.backends.PLOT_BACKENDS` dictionary using the class name or, if defined the ``"name"`` attribute of that class as key. If the key is already in use, a warning is issued and the class is not added. This simple metaclass mimics the behavior of entrypoints to some degree: It is a registry of classes that provide a certain functionality. However, classes are only added to this registry when they are imported, so we need a manual import statement somewhere. `Entrypoints <https://packaging.python.org/en/latest/specifications/entry-points/>`_ could do that for an *installed* package, even those outside of Sherpa. However, the required `importlib.metadata` was added only in Python 3.10 to the standard library, so for now we prefer this home-grown solution that can give Sherpa most of the functionality with no new dependencies. ''' def __init__(cls, name, bases, dct): super().__init__(name, bases, dct) n = dct.get('name') # Check if this is a manually set string # If not, use class name. if not isinstance(n, str): n = name if n not in PLOT_BACKENDS: PLOT_BACKENDS[n] = cls else: warning( f'{n} is already a registered name for {PLOT_BACKENDS[n]}: Not adding {cls}.')
[docs] class BaseBackend(metaclass=MetaBaseBackend): '''A dummy backend for plotting. This backend implements only minimal functionality (some formatting of strings as HTML or LaTeX which are usually used as axis labels), but no real plotting capabilities. It is here to ensure that the `sherpa.plot` module can be imported, even if no plotting backend is installed. In this sense, this backend can be understood as the "base" for backends. The string-formatting is implemented here so that other backends don't have to duplicate that; they can call the functions here. No plotting is implemented in this backend, but all functions are documented by what they should do, so that this backend can serve as a template to implement actual plotting interfaces. ''' translate_dict = {} '''Dict of keyword arguments that need to be translated for this backend. The keys in this dict are keyword arguments (e.g. ``'markerfacecolor'``) and the values are one of the following: - A dict where the keys are the backend-independent values and the values are the values expressed for this backend. For values not listed in the dict, no translation is done. - A callable. The callable translation function is called with any argument given and allows the backend arbitrary translations. It should, at the very least, accept all backend independent values for this parameter without error. Example: >>> translate_dict = {'markerfacecolor': {'k': (0., 0., 0.)}, ... 'alpha': lambda a: 255 * a} This translates the color 'k' to tuple of RGB values and alpha values to a number between 0 and 255. ''' def __enter__(self): return None def __exit__(self, type, value, traceback): return False @property def name(self): '''An easy-to-read string name ''' return self.__class__.__name__
[docs] def colorlist(self, n): '''Generate the list of n colors for use in multi-line plots. Generally, the color will be ordered in some way and do not repeat or do so only after a large number of colors. Different backends might generate different lists of colors. Parameters ---------- n : int Number of colors requested Returns ------- colors : list list of color specifiers ''' clist = deepcopy(backend_indep_colors) # White is typically the background and not a good color for a line clist.remove('w') # None is the background default. clist.remove(None) clist = clist * (n // len(clist) + 1) return clist[:n]
[docs] def set_subplot(self, row, col, nrows, ncols, clearaxes=True, **kwargs): """Select a plot space in a grid of plots or create new grid This method adds a new subplot in a grid of plots. .. warning:: This backend is a non-functional dummy. The documentation is provided as a template only. Parameters ---------- row, col : int index (starting at 0) of a subplot in a grid of plots nrows, ncols : int Number of rows and column in the plot grid clearaxes : bool If True, clear entire plotting area before adding the new subplot. Note ---- This method is intended for grids of plots with the same number of plots in each row and each column. In some backends, more complex layouts (e.g. one wide plot on row 1 and two smaller plots in row 2) might be possible. """ pass
[docs] def set_jointplot(self, row, col, nrows, ncols, create=True, top=0, ratio=2): """Move to the plot, creating them if necessary. .. warning:: This backend is a non-functional dummy. The documentation is provided as a template only. Parameters ---------- row : int The row number, starting from 0. col : int The column number, starting from 0. nrows : int The number of rows. ncols : int The number of columns. create : bool, optional If True then create the plots top : int The row that is set to the ratio height, numbered from 0. ratio : float The ratio of the height of row number top to the other rows. """ pass
[docs] def clear_window(self): """Provide empty plot window Depending on the backend, this may provide a new, empty window or clear the existing, current window. """ pass
# Needed for datastack plotting wrapper
[docs] def initialize_plot(self, dataset, ids): """Create the plot window or figure for the given dataset. .. warning:: This function is a non-functional dummy. The documentation is provided as a template only. Parameters ---------- dataset : str or int The dataset. ids : array_like The identifier array from the DataStack object. See Also -------- select_plot """ pass
# Needed for datastack plotting wrapper
[docs] def select_plot(self, dataset, ids): """Select the plot window or figure for the given dataset. The plot for this dataset is assumed to have been created. .. warning:: This function is a non-functional dummy. The documentation is provided as a template only. Parameters ---------- dataset : str or int The dataset. ids : array_like The identifier array from the DataStack object. See Also -------- initialize_plot """ pass
[docs] @add_kwargs_to_doc(kwargs_doc) @translate_args def plot(self, x, y, *, xerr=None, yerr=None, title=None, xlabel=None, ylabel=None, xlog=False, ylog=False, overplot=False, clearwindow=True, label=None, xerrorbars=False, yerrorbars=False, color=None, linestyle='solid', linewidth=None, marker='None', alpha=None, markerfacecolor=None, markersize=None, **kwargs): """Draw x, y data. This method combines a number of different ways to draw x/y data: - a line connecting the points - scatter plot of symbols - errorbars All three of them can be used together (symbols with errorbars connected by a line), but it is also possible to use only one or two of them. By default, a line is shown (``linestyle='solid'``), but marker and error bars are not (``marker='None'`` and ``xerrorbars=False`` as well as ``yerrorbars=False``). .. warning:: This backend is a non-functional dummy. The documentation is provided as a template only. Parameters ---------- x : array-like or scalar number x values y : array-like or scalar number y values, same dimension as `x`. {kwargs} """ pass
[docs] @add_kwargs_to_doc(kwargs_doc) @translate_args def histo(self, xlo, xhi, y, *, yerr=None, title=None, xlabel=None, ylabel=None, overplot=False, clearwindow=True, xlog=False, ylog=False, label=None, xerrorbars=False, yerrorbars=False, color=None, linestyle='solid', linewidth=None, marker='None', alpha=None, markerfacecolor=None, markersize=None, ecolor=None, capsize=None, # barsabove=False, **kwargs): """Draw histogram data. The histogram is drawn as horizontal lines connecting the start and end points of each bin, with vertical lines connecting consecutive bins. Non-consecutive bins are drawn with a (NaN, NaN) between them so no line is drawn connecting them. Points are drawn at the middle of the bin, along with any error values. .. warning:: This backend is a non-functional dummy. The documentation is provided as a template only. Parameters ---------- x0 : array-like or scalar number lower bin boundary values x1 : array-like or scalar number upper bin boundary values y : array-like or scalar number y values, same dimension as `x0`. {kwargs} """ pass
[docs] @add_kwargs_to_doc(kwargs_doc) @translate_args def contour(self, x0, x1, y, *, levels=None, title=None, xlabel=None, ylabel=None, overcontour=False, clearwindow=True, xlog=False, ylog=False, label=None, colors=None, linestyles='solid', linewidths=None, alpha=None, **kwargs): """Draw 2D contour data. .. warning:: This backend is a non-functional dummy. The documentation is provided as a template only. Parameters ---------- x0 : array-like independent axis in the first dimenation (on regular grid, flattened) x1 : array-like independent axis in the second dimenation (on regular grid, flattened) y : array-like dependent axis (i.e. image values) (on regular grid, flattened) {kwargs} """ pass
[docs] @add_kwargs_to_doc(kwargs_doc) @translate_args def image(self, x0, x1, y, *, aspect=1, title=None, xlabel=None, ylabel=None, clearwindow=True, **kwargs): """Draw 2D image data. .. warning:: This function is a non-functional dummy. The documentation is provided as a template only. Parameters ---------- x0 : array-like independent axis in the first dimenation x1 : array-like independent axis in the second dimenation y : array-like, with shape (len(x0), len(x1)) dependent axis (i.e. image values) in 2D with shape (len(x0), len(x1)) {kwargs} """ pass
[docs] @add_kwargs_to_doc(kwargs_doc) @translate_args def vline(self, x, *, ymin=0, ymax=1, title=None, xlabel=None, ylabel=None, overplot=False, clearwindow=True, linecolor=None, linestyle=None, linewidth=None, **kwargs): """Draw a vertical line .. warning:: This backend is a non-functional dummy. The documentation is provided as a template only. Parameters ---------- x : float x position of the vertical line in data units {kwargs} """ pass
[docs] @add_kwargs_to_doc(kwargs_doc) @translate_args def hline(self, y, *, xmin=0, xmax=1, title=None, xlabel=None, ylabel=None, overplot=False, clearwindow=True, linecolor=None, linestyle=None, linewidth=None, **kwargs): """Draw a horizontal line .. warning:: This backend is a non-functional dummy. The documentation is provided as a template only. Parameters ---------- y : float x position of the vertical line in data units {kwargs} """ pass
[docs] def get_latex_for_string(self, txt): """Convert LaTeX formula Parameters ---------- txt : str The text component in LaTeX form (e.g. r'\alpha^2'). It should not contain any non-LaTeX content. Returns ------- latex : str The text modified as appropriate for a backend so that the LaTeX will be displayed properly. """ return "${}$".format(txt)
# HTML representation as tabular data #
[docs] def as_html(self, data, fields): """Create HTML representation of a plot Parameters ---------- data : Plot instance The plot object to display. fields : sequence of strings The fields of data to use. """ # Would like a nicer way to set the summary label, but without # adding a per-class field for this it is safest just to use # the object name. meta = [] for name in fields: # skip records which we don't know about. This indicates # an error in the calling code, but we don't want it to # stop the generation of the HTML. # try: val = getattr(data, name) except Exception as e: lgr.debug("Skipping field {}: {}".format(name, e)) continue meta.append((name, val)) ls = [formatting.html_section(meta, open_block=True, summary=type(data).__name__)] return formatting.html_from_sections(data, ls)
# The following methods will almost all be removed in Step 2 # and thus no documentation has been added.
[docs] def get_split_plot_defaults(self): return get_keyword_defaults(self.set_subplot)
[docs] def get_plot_defaults(self): return get_keyword_defaults(self.plot)
[docs] def get_histo_defaults(self): return get_keyword_defaults(self.histo)
[docs] def get_point_defaults(self): d = self.get_plot_defaults() d['linecolor'] = d.pop('color') return d
[docs] def get_confid_point_defaults(self): d = self.get_plot_defaults() d['marker'] = '+' return d
[docs] def get_data_plot_defaults(self): d = self.get_plot_defaults() d['yerrorbars'] = True d['linestyle'] = 'None' d['marker'] = '.' return d
[docs] def get_model_histo_defaults(self): d = self.get_histo_defaults() return d
[docs] def get_model_plot_defaults(self): d = self.get_plot_defaults() d['linestyle'] = '-' d['marker'] = 'None' return d
[docs] def get_fit_plot_defaults(self): return {}
[docs] def get_resid_plot_defaults(self): d = self.get_data_plot_defaults() d['xerrorbars'] = True d['capsize'] = 0 # d['marker'] = '_' return d
[docs] def get_ratio_plot_defaults(self): d = self.get_data_plot_defaults() d['xerrorbars'] = True d['capsize'] = 0 # d['marker'] = '_' return d
[docs] def get_confid_plot_defaults(self): d = self.get_plot_defaults() d['linestyle'] = '-' d['marker'] = 'None' return d
[docs] def get_contour_defaults(self): return get_keyword_defaults(self.contour)
get_data_contour_defaults = get_contour_defaults get_model_contour_defaults = get_contour_defaults
[docs] def get_fit_contour_defaults(self): return {}
get_confid_contour_defaults = get_data_contour_defaults get_resid_contour_defaults = get_data_contour_defaults get_ratio_contour_defaults = get_data_contour_defaults get_component_plot_defaults = get_model_plot_defaults get_component_histo_defaults = get_model_histo_defaults
[docs] def get_cdf_plot_defaults(self): d = self.get_model_plot_defaults() return d
[docs] def get_scatter_plot_defaults(self): d = self.get_data_plot_defaults() return d
[docs] def get_rmf_plot_defaults(self): d = self.get_model_histo_defaults() d['xlog'] = True d['ylog'] = True return d
[docs] def get_image_defaults(self): '''Currently, there are no configurable settings''' return {}
[docs] def as_html_histogram(self, plot): return self.as_html(plot, ['xlo', 'xhi', 'y', 'title', 'xlabel', 'ylabel'])
[docs] def as_html_pdf(self, plot): return self.as_html(plot, ['points', 'xlo', 'xhi', 'y', 'title', 'xlabel', 'ylabel'])
[docs] def as_html_cdf(self, plot): return self.as_html(plot, ['points', 'x', 'y', 'median', 'lower', 'upper', 'title', 'xlabel', 'ylabel'])
[docs] def as_html_lr(self, plot): return self.as_html(plot, ['ratios', 'lr', 'xlo', 'xhi', 'y', 'title', 'xlabel', 'ylabel'])
[docs] def as_html_data(self, plot): return self.as_html(plot, ['x', 'xerr', 'y', 'yerr', 'title', 'xlabel', 'ylabel'])
[docs] def as_html_datacontour(self, plot): return self.as_html(plot, ['x0', 'x1', 'y', 'levels', 'title', 'xlabel', 'ylabel'])
[docs] def as_html_model(self, plot): return self.as_html(plot, ['x', 'xerr', 'y', 'yerr', 'title', 'xlabel', 'ylabel'])
[docs] def as_html_modelcontour(self, plot): return self.as_html(plot, ['x0', 'x1', 'y', 'levels', 'title', 'xlabel', 'ylabel'])
[docs] def get_html(self, attr): if attr is None: return '' return attr._repr_html_()
[docs] def as_html_fit(self, plot): # Would like to do a better combination than this dplot = self.get_html(plot.dataplot) mplot = self.get_html(plot.modelplot) if dplot == '' and mplot == '': return None return dplot + mplot
[docs] def as_html_fitcontour(self, plot): # Would like to do a better combination than this dplot = self.get_html(plot.datacontour) mplot = self.get_html(plot.modelcontour) if dplot == '' and mplot == '': return None return dplot + mplot
[docs] def as_html_contour1d(self, plot): return self.as_html(plot, ['x', 'y', 'min', 'max', 'nloop', 'delv', 'fac', 'log'])
[docs] def as_html_contour2d(self, plot): return self.as_html(plot, ['parval0', 'parval1', 'sigma', 'x0', 'x1', 'y', 'levels', 'min', 'max', 'nloop', 'delv', 'fac', 'log'])
# TODO: Inconsistent. Some plots have as_html_xxx, but others do not. # Some have it only in the pylab backend and then code checks for # the existence of the method. # try: # out = plot.backend.as_html_image(plotter, f'{dtype} Plot') # except AttributeError: # out = None # # Here is a proto-type if we want to continue adding as_html_xxx. # def as_html_image(self, plot): # return self.as_html(plot, # ['x0', 'x1', 'y', 'aspect', 'title', # 'xlabel', 'ylabel'])
[docs] class BasicBackend(BaseBackend): '''A dummy backend for plotting. This backend extends `BaseBackend` by raising a warning message for plotting functions (plot, image, histrogram etc.) that are not implemented. It is the base for any real functional backend, which will override those methods, but offer useful user feedback for any method not provided. This future-proofs any backend derived from this class: When sherpa adds new functions to its backend definition, they will be added here with a warning message. Thus, any backend derived from this class will always provide the interface that sherpa requires from a plotting backend. '''
[docs] @translate_args def plot(self, x, y, *, xerr=None, yerr=None, title=None, xlabel=None, ylabel=None, xlog=False, ylog=False, overplot=False, clearwindow=True, label=None, xerrorbars=False, yerrorbars=False, color=None, linestyle='solid', linewidth=None, marker='None', alpha=None, markerfacecolor=None, markersize=None, ecolor=None, capsize=None, **kwargs): '''Draw x,y data. .. warning:: No output will be produced by this backend, since the implementation is incomplete. ''' if 'xaxis' in kwargs: warning('Keyword "xaxis" is deprecated and has no effect. xaxis are always drawn for delta_xxx plots.') if 'ratioline' in kwargs: warning('Keyword "ratioline" is deprecated and has no effect. Ratio lines are always drawn for ratio plots.') warning(f'{self.__class__} does not implement line/symbol plotting. ' + 'No plot will be produced.')
[docs] @translate_args def histo(self, xlo, xhi, y, *, yerr=None, title=None, xlabel=None, ylabel=None, overplot=False, clearwindow=True, xlog=False, ylog=False, label=None, xerrorbars=False, yerrorbars=False, color=None, linestyle='solid', linewidth=None, marker='None', alpha=None, markerfacecolor=None, markersize=None, ecolor=None, capsize=None, # barsabove=False, **kwargs): '''Display 1D histrogram .. warning:: No output will be produced by this backend, since the implementation is incomplete. ''' warning(f'{self.__class__} does not implement histogram plotting. ' + 'No histogram will be produced.')
[docs] @translate_args def contour(self, x0, x1, y, *, levels=None, title=None, xlabel=None, ylabel=None, overcontour=False, clearwindow=True, xlog=False, ylog=False, label=None, colors=None, linestyles='solid', linewidths=None, alpha=None, **kwargs): '''Draw contour lines. .. warning:: No output will be produced by this backend, since the implementation is incomplete. ''' warning(f'{self.__class__} does not implement contour plotting. ' + 'No contour will be produced.')
[docs] @add_kwargs_to_doc(kwargs_doc) @translate_args def vline(self, x, *, ymin=0, ymax=1, title=None, xlabel=None, ylabel=None, overplot=False, clearwindow=True, linecolor=None, linestyle=None, linewidth=None, **kwargs): """Draw a vertical line .. warning:: No output will be produced by this backend, since the implementation is incomplete. Parameters ---------- x : float x position of the vertical line in data units {kwargs} """ warning(f'{self.__class__} does not implement line plotting. ' + 'No line will be produced.')
[docs] @add_kwargs_to_doc(kwargs_doc) @translate_args def hline(self, y, *, xmin=0, xmax=1, title=None, xlabel=None, ylabel=None, overplot=False, clearwindow=True, linecolor=None, linestyle=None, linewidth=None, **kwargs): """Draw a horizontal line .. warning:: No output will be produced by this backend, since the implementation is incomplete. Parameters ---------- y : float x position of the vertical line in data units {kwargs} """ warning(f'{self.__class__} does not implement line plotting. ' + 'No line will be produced.')
[docs] class IndepOnlyBackend(BasicBackend): '''A backend that accepts only backend-independent options and arguments This is meant for testing code and testing the documentation to ensure that examples only use backend independent options. ''' def __init__(self, *args, **kwargs): super(*args, **kwargs) # We want to change the instance attribute, not the class attribute. self.translate_dict = {} def _check(key, values): def check_in_list(v): if v not in values: raise ValueError('The following backend-independent ' + f'values are defined for {k}: {values}, but got {v}') return v return check_in_list for k, v in backend_indep_kwargs.items(): self.translate_dict[k] = _check(k, v) def __getattribute__(self, __name: str): '''Override attribute access When looking up a method, get the method of the base class, inspect its signature and return a function that tests if the caller uses any keyword arguments that are not matched to names parameters in the signature, i.e. any that would go into **kwargs. If that is the case, raise a TypeError. The simple way do to that would be to copy and paste the method signature from every method in the base class into this class, remove the "**kwargs" where present and make every function a no-op. However, that means that everything has to be maintained here, too, and it is easy to get the two classes out of sync in the future. So, instead, we do a little exercise in meta-programming. ''' attr = super().__getattribute__(__name) # If it's callable and not of type type it's a method # The simpler isinstance(attr, types.MethodType) does not work #if type(attr) != type and callable(attr): if isinstance(attr, types.MethodType): sig = signature(attr) def checked_func(*args, **kwargs): for k in kwargs: if k not in sig.parameters: raise TypeError(f'{attr.__name__} got keyword argument {k}, ' + 'which is not part of the named keyword arguments.') return attr(*args, **kwargs) return checked_func return attr